Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 9 : 11 November 2009
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         K. Karunakaran, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.



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Copyright © 2009
M. S. Thirumalai


Effective Use of Language in Communicating News
through Political Emergency

R. Subramani, Ph.D


Emergency is a governmental declaration that may put off 'certain usual functions of government, alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or order government agencies to implement Emergency preparedness plans. It can also be used as a rationale for suspending civil liberties. Such declarations usually come during a time of natural disaster, during periods of civil disorder, or following a war'. But, unfortunately, some countries have declared Emergency because of the local political crisis or turmoil. At that circumstance civil liberties and governmental system are regulated by the constitution and powers may be invoked or rights may be suspended.

During the Emergency, civil liberties as well as the freedom of expression of the media are set aside. Simply they impose censorship on the media. The censor has two notions, 'to count the citizens and to supervise their morals. The intention of censorship is to control the speech and other forms of human expression, often by government intervention'.

In the 18th century, European media outlets underwent strict censorship. Colonial governments, such like Russia, Britain, exercised firm control on political publications in their spheres; Russia as in the Baltic states, Britain as in Australia, Canada, India and the colonized Africa. Sometimes wartime censorship is also carried out with the intention of preventing the release of information that might be advantageous to an enemy. This has been successfully employed in the Second World War.

Emergency in India

In the post-independent era, the Indian press has enjoyed the large measures of freedom because Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru realized the need of the press. Even though in the year of 1961 Emergency was imposed on the press, the restrictions on the press were minimal. But the 1975 Emergency dictated rigorous restrictions on the people and media.

In connection with Indira Gandhi election case, the Uttar Pradesh High court delivered judgment on June 12th, 1975. The justice Jagmohan Lal Sinha declared Mrs. Indira Gandhi's 1971 election was invalid and barred the prime minister from holding political office for 6 years. That judgment sparked a fire in Indian politics. Indira Gandhi Government at the Centrre declared Emergency on June 26th, 1975. The nineteen month Emergency suspended the fundamental rights of the people. Moreover all the laws related to fundamental rights have been set aside. That was one of the darkest periods in the post-independence history; people were not able to know what happened in the country, because press was not allowed to carry any anti-Emergency news.

The central censorship order addressed to all printers, publishers and editors prohibited the publication of news, comments, rumors or other reports relating to action taken by the government in relation to Emergency. The government guidelines and censorship orders had their effect throughout the country. Following the declaration of Emergency, more than thirty-four printing presses were seized and sealed; over seven thousand people were arrested in connection with the publication and circulation of underground literature. The government tried to suppress news on such arrest. In fact, the official orders did not reveal anything to the press.

This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.

Attitude towards Mother Tongue - A Study of the Tribal Students of Orissa | Computer-mediated Communication in a Bilingual Chatroom | Compensation Strategies for Speaking English Adopted by Engineering Students of Tamil Nadu - A Study | Acquisition of English Intransitive Verbs by Urdu Speakers | Community, Culture and Curriculum in the Context of Tribal Education in Orissa, India | Auxiliary Verbs in Modern Tamil | Getting Around 'Offensive' Language | Noun Morphology in Kuki-Chin Languages | A Plea for the Use of Language Portals in Imparting Communication Skills | Advances in Machine Translation Systems | A Comparative Study of the Effect of Explicit-inductive and Explicit-deductive Grammar Instruction in EFL Contexts | Lexical Choice and Social Context in Shashi Deshpande's That Long Silence | The Voice of Servility and Dominance Expressed through Animal Imagery in Adiga's The White Tiger | Phonological Analysis of English Phonotactics of Syllable Initial and Final Consonant Clusters by Yemeni Speakers of English | Effective Use of Language in Communicating News through Political Emergency | Helping the Limited English Proficient Learner Learn the Second Language Effectively through Strategy Instruction | P.S. Sri's The Temple Elephant: A Bestiary with Socio-Political and Spiritual Message | Papers Presented in the All-India Conference on Multimedia Enhanced Language Teaching - MELT 2009 | A Phonological Study of the Variety of English Spoken by Oriya Speakers in Western Orissa - A Doctoral Dissertation | HOME PAGE of November 2009 Issue | HOME PAGE | CONTACT EDITOR

R. Subramani, Ph.D.
Department of Journalism and Mass Communication
Periyar University
Salem 636 011
Tamil Nadu, India

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