Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 12 : 6 June 2012
ISSN 1930-2940

Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
         A. R. Fatihi, Ph.D.
         Lakhan Gusain, Ph.D.
         Jennifer Marie Bayer, Ph.D.
         S. M. Ravichandran, Ph.D.
         G.Baskaran, Ph.D.
         L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.
Assistant Managing Editor: Swarna Thirumalai, M.A.

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  • E-mail your articles and book-length reports to
  • Your articles and booklength reports should be written following the MLA, APA, LSA, or IJDL Stylesheet.
  • The Editorial Board has the right to accept, reject, or suggest modifications to the articles submitted for publication, and to make suitable stylistic adjustments. High quality, academic integrity, ethics and morals are expected from the authors and discussants.
  • Would you like to announce the dates and venues of your conferences, seminars, etc., and also publish the outline proceedings of these programs? Send a report to Language in India.

Copyright © 2011
M. S. Thirumalai

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Language in India is an Open Access Journal. Language in India does not charge readers or their institutions for access.

Articles and books published in Language in India are indexed in several leading databases: EBSCOHost database, MLA International Bibliography and the Directory of Periodicals, ProQuest (Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts) and Gale Research. The journal is listed in the Directory of Open Access Journals also.

The next issue (the issue of July, 2012) will be uploaded by the second week of July, 2012 or earlier.

We now provide a pdf version of the entire issue as the last item in the List of Contents below! This is a large single file of all the papers included in this issue! This document is better viewed if you open it online and then save it in your computer. After saving it in your computer, you can easily read and print all the pages from the saved document.

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Map of India, courtesy: Census of India.



Thanks, my dear friend! You are most welcome to send articles for publication in Language in India Our Board of Editors consists of distinguished linguists with many years of contributions to Indian Linguistics. We will evaluate every article before we accept any for publication. We are very happy that you did a good job in your last article.

Please write to us for detailed Guidelines.

Language in India is an international online monthly research journal, and is indexed in four major international databases: EBSCOHost, ProQuest (Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts), MLA International Bibliography and Gale Research. Thus, your research is available in University Libraries all over the world for others to read and cite. The journal receives over 425,000 visits every month and is accessed in over 75 countries. Please check out the details given in the home page of the journal.
You must do the following:
  • Must include your complete address including institutional affiliation and e-mail address on the first page of your article. Please also give your cell phone number (for urgent editorial messages only). It is for the authors to take care of this important part if they want others to correspond with them on the subject.
  • You must give the declaration as to the authenticity of the work that you submit. This declaration should state that your article or work submitted for publication in LANGUAGE IN INDIA is an original work by you and that you have duly acknowledged the work or works of others you either cited or used in writing your articles, etc. A model is given below:
  • This is to certify that the article ……. submitted for publication in Language in India is an original work by me/us based on my/our research, that I/we have duly acknowledged in the said paper the work or works of others I/we used in writing this article, that I/we have duly cited all such work/s in the text as well as in the list of references, and that I/we have presented within quotes all the original sentences and phrases, etc. taken from the sources that I/we have consulted in writing this article.
    I/we further declare that the paper submitted for publication in Language in India has not been previously published, is not currently submitted for review to any other journal, and will not be submitted elsewhere before a decision is made by this journal.
    I/we also declare that I/we will pay the formatting fee for the article/dissertation (specified in the Guidelines) as and when my paper/dissertation is accepted for publication in Language in India
  • Authors may kindly review their articles in the light of the required declaration given above, before they submit their work for publication in Language in India They are wholly responsible for any plagiarism identified in their works. Language in India will not and does not assume any responsibility for the acts of plagiarism committed by the authors.
  • Kindly note that you are not permitted to add any new author/s or delete the names of authors from the paper/s, once you've submitted your article/s for publication.
  • Remember that by maintaining academic integrity we not only do the right thing but also help the growth, development and recognition of Indian scholarship. This applies also to all who submit their articles for publication from other nations as well.
  • You must not paginate your article submitted in the Word or pdf formats. will paginate it.
  • If your article involves a lot of diacritic marks and is a complex presentation that is difficult to reproduce, you may like to submit your article in PDF format. While doing so, please do not paginate it.
  • The title page will be somewhat like this in pdf. Title of the paper in bold, Times New Roman in 16 point, immediately followed by the name/s of the author/s, with each author's name followed by their educational qualification such as Ph.D., M.Phil., or M.A., etc., in 14 point, and then after one line space, a line in bold. After this, give one line space and begin your article. It is better to check how pdf files are formatted in Language in India and proceed accordingly. While in doubt, please send an e-mail to
  • Please include your educational qualifications such as M.Phil., immediately after your name in the first page of the article.
  • Give complete details of your address, with postal number (pin or zip code).Include the e-mail addresses and postal addresses of all the authors of the article. It will be useful to add your cell phone number/s for any urgent contact.
  • Please tell all your friends, colleagues, supervisors, and relatives that your article is published in Language in India so that they will log in and see it. You do not become known easily unless your work is publicized first in your circles of friends and relatives!
  • Encourage your co-workers also to write articles for Language in India
  • If you can support this publication by donations, you are most welcome to do so, and we will receive the gifts with gratitude and appreciation. Remember, it does cost a lot of money and time, even to perform good works! Thirumalai has been publishing the journal for 8 years with very little support! However, donations will not influence the decision to accept or not accept any submission for publication in
  • Language in India charges a formatting fee of Indian rupees 800 only for the publication of each article submitted by authors from South Asia and other less affluent countries. Authors from affluent countries are charged a fee of Indian rupees 1600 only. Note that those authors of South Asian origin who work in affluent countries are also charged Indian rupees 1600 for each article. This fee covers only the formatting of articles, etc. for HTML presentation, uploading it to the Internet, maintaining it in the Internet and for doing repairs when necessary.
  • The maximum length of an article is set at 25 pages in 1.5 line space and this includes all appendices, etc. which form part of the article. Formatting fee varies with the length of the materials submitted for publication. This formatting fee meets only partially the costs of formatting, uploading, maintaining the article in the Internet and for doing repairs when necessary. The decision to publish or not publish depends solely on the merit and relevance of the article accepted.
  • Every university-approved Ph.D. dissertation is charged Indian Rupees 3000 and M.Phil. Dissertation is charged Indian Rupees 2200 only. Masters dissertations are charged Indian rupees 1800 only. University-approved dissertations are not normally reviewed as these have already been approved after review by examiners by the universities. However, minor adjustments may be suggested for easy readability.
  • Every monograph accepted for publication in Language in India will be charged Indian rupees 5000 only. Proceedings of the Seminars and Conferences will also be considered as monographs. Services offered include editorial help, formatting and academic suggestions. High Quality and relevance of research and appropriate research methodology, total avoidance of plagiarism are some of our major concerns.
  • Remember that Language in India is interested in publishing articles that bring out the application of concepts and principles to Indian languages and South Asian social sciences and adjacent sciences, including English language teaching and writing in India and other South Asian nations. We also welcome papers on other languages from other nations as well, following the age-old Indian tradition of welcoming knowledge from everywhere and to serve all. If you've used any one particular concept, idea, or theory, etc., please write about your experience in using these concepts, ideas, or theories, etc., and bring out how you, your co-workers, and your students have either benefited or not. Also include how you modified and/or used these concepts in your classrooms, etc. If what I say is difficult to follow, please see some of the recent articles in Language in India that apply concepts to Indian and South Asian contexts, etc. We are not interested in publishing a mere compendium of ideas from various sources. We are interested in publishing articles on all aspects of language structure and use.
  • Language in India is an inter-disciplinary online monthly journal. So, we also seek to publish materials on all aspects of society and culture and related issues from around the world.
  • Kindly note that once the article or dissertation etc. is published in Language in India, any publication of the same material in outside source in print or in electronic format can be done only with the permission of Language in India Any royalty that will accrue from the publication of materials already published in Language in India through other sources both in print and electronic format will have to be shared between the authors in a range that is favorable to the authors (75% for the authors and 25% to Language in India ), since Language in India does meet the major part of the cost of the initial publication of such materials.
  • No new materials can be added once the article is published. Please ensure that when submitting your work names of all authors are included. No addition of author/s after formatting of the article is done and sent to the author/s is allowed. Please avoid including Bibliography. Instead please include only a List of References of all works cited within the text, including Internet sources. We generally follow the style sheets of APA, MLA, Indian Linguistics, IJDL and Language. But you need to restrict yourself to one style within your article. Standardization has become very difficult because Indian universities are still in the process of evolving a common style for their research publications. Readability and easy cross reference for future research should guide our authors in choosing an appropriate style in a consistent manner.


  • Language in India publishes articles in major Indian languages. These articles in Indian languages will be published in the PDF format for easy accessibility.
  • For further guidelines or clarification, please contact the Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D. via e-mail
  • Authors of articles using Indian scripts are advised to send their articles in the PDF format to

  • Language In India is a monthly online journal devoted to the study of the languages spoken in the Indian sub-continent. We wish to present the scholarly research findings on these languages in popular language. Our focus is on language use in mass media, education and administration, speech and hearing, sociolinguistic and political aspects relating to these languages and the society in the Indian subcontinent. We wish to present the linguistic descriptions, interdisciplinary research, and current issues of importance relating to Indian languages. Following the age-old tradition of Indian scholarship, the pages of this journal are open to scholarly articles on any language and society. We believe in co-operation and mutual help to foster amity between all peoples and their languages. This online journal publishes not only articles, but also book-length reports and studies. We want to be a blessing to Indian and other languages, praying for "strength for today and bright hope for tomorrow." We sincerely believe that every language deserves our whole-hearted support for growth and that every one can find its place in a mosaic of unity and understanding, serving each other and singing the glory of God.