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- The Impact of Teachers’ Beliefs on L2 Grammar Teaching ...
Nayyer Hassan, M.A. TESOL, M.S. TESOL
- Tribal Languages of Kerala ...
Ravi Sankar S. Nair, Ph.D.
- Teaching of Adverbials to the Tamil Speaking Learners of English ...
- Drama in Indian Writing in English - Tradition and Modernity ...
Dr. (Mrs.) N. Velmani, Ph.D.
- Representation of History in Rahi Masoom Reza’s A Village Divided and
Amitav Ghosh’s The Glass Palace
Imran A.K. Surti
- Personality Style, Anxiety Sensitivity and Perceived
Social Support among the Pregnant Women
M.Phil. Dissertation in Clinical Psychology ...
Mangaleshwari Manjari. N. M.Sc., M.Phil.
- Health and Medical Care Services: Claims on National
Editor: C. Subburaman, Ph.D.
- An Investigation into Some of the Learning Problems in
English Language Writing among Lambada Community Learners
in Andhra Pradesh ...
N. Padmamma, M.Phil.
- Teaching Writing Using Picture Stories as Tools at the High School Level: The Movement from Other Regulation to Self Regulation ...
Y. Nirmala, M.Phil.
- Current Perspectives on Education ...
Editors: P. Udayakumar, M.Sc., M.Phil., M.Ed., M.A., Ph.D. Candidate
Dr. M. Lekeshmanaswamy, Ph.D.
Dr. K. Dhanalakshmi, Ph.D.
- Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels in Telugu ...
- Mother – Daughter Relationships: A Study of The Dark Holds No Terrors, Difficult Daughters and Fasting, Feasting ...
Jitender Singh, M.A., M.Phil., NET.
- Treatment of Violence: A Study of Morrison’s The Bluest Eye and Beloved
Shubhanku Kochar, M.Phil., Ph.D. Candidate
- Dyslexia: A Critical Study of Language Deficiency in Children and Adolescents
Vaishali Narbheram Punjani, M.A., M.Phil. B.Ed.
- Michael Ondaatje’s Anil’s Ghost and Vikram Chandra’s Sacred Games as Detective Fiction
S. Sridevi, M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed.
- A Grammar of Malayalam ...
Ravi Sankar S Nair, Ph.D.
- The Evolution of Language Laws in Post-Independence India ...
B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
- Impact of Commercialization on Language with Special Reference to Urdu Lexicon - Doctoral Dissertation ... Somana Fatimah,Ph.D.
- Status of English among the Kokborok and Tripura Bangla Learners in Tripura - M.Phi. Dissertation
... Swapan Debnath, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
- Communicative Language Teaching Approach at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh –
Teachers’ Perceptions and Classroom Practice
... Md. Khaled Bin Chowdhury, M.A. (Double)
- A Study on Personality Factors Causing Stress among School Teachers
M.Phil. Dissertation ... C. Manjula, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
- English Language Teaching
Updating the English Classroom with Techniques and Communication Skills
A Book on Current ELT ... Chandrika Mohan, M.A., M.A., M.Phil., C.G.T., Ph.D. Candidate
- A Song for the Road-
Wole Soyinka’s Imagery and Tradition ... V. N. Manjula, Ph.D.
- A Linguistic Survey of Katta Varadaraju’s Dwipada Ramayanam
A Ph.D. Dissertation in Telugu ... Pammi Pavan Kumar, M.A. (Telugu) M.A. (Linguistics),
M. Phil., Ph.D. (Telugu)
- Select Speeches of Mrs. Indira Gandhi
English to Tamil
M.Phil. Dissertation ... J. Abiraami, M.A., M.Phil.
- Linguistics and Literature, Department of Linguistics Silver Jubilee Volume 1 ... Editors: C. Sivashanmugam, Ph.D., et al.
- Recent Advances in Linguistics, Department of Linguistics Silver Jubilee Volume 2 ... Editors: C. Sivashanmugam, Ph.D., et al.
- Engineering English: A Critical Evaluation - Ph.D. Dissertation ... Albert P’Rayan, Ph.D.
- Kalidasa's Shakuntala and the Doctrine of Rasa ... Tripti Mund, M.A., M.Phil.
- Evolving Strategies for Teaching Basic Vocabulary in L2 through Meaningful Input: An Ethnographic Study with First Generation Learners ... Rajakumar Guduru, M.Phil., Ph.D. Scholar
- Aspects of Autobiography in Indian Writing in English ... Editors: Pauline Das, Ph.D., K. R. Vijaya Murari, Ph.D., and Charu Sheela, M.A., M.Phil., M.B.A.
- Imagery in Donne's Songs and Sonnets ... Fatima Ali al-Khamisi, M.A.
- Parsing in Indian Languages ... Editors: Kommaluri Vijayanand and L. Ramamoorthy
- English Language Teaching (ELT) in Saudi Arabia: A Study of Learners' Needs Analysis with Special Reference to Community College, Najran University ... Dr. Mohd. Mahib ur Rahman, Ph.D.
- Provision for Linguistic Diversity and Linguistic Minorities in India ... Vanishree V.M., MAPL and ELT, M.A., PGDHRM.
- Impact of Students' Attitudes on their Achievement in English: A Study in the Yemeni Context ... Hassan Saeed Awadh Ba-Udhan
- A Study of B.ED. Students' Attitude Towards Using Internet in Vellore District, Tamilnadu, India ... T. Pushpanathan, M.A., M.Phil., B.Ed.
- Development of a Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System, A Doctoral Dissertation ... Vishal Goyal, Ph.D.
- A Report on the State of Urdu Literacy in India, 2010 ...
Omar Khalidi, Ph.D.
- English for Medical Students of Hodeidah University, Yemen - A Pre-sessional Course ...
Arif Ahmed Mohammed Hassan Al-Ahdal, Ph.D. Scholar
- Global Perspective of Teaching English Literature in Higher Education in Pakistan ...
Rabiah Rustam, M.S., Ph.D. Candidate
- Improving Chemmozhi Learning and Teaching - Descriptive Studies in Classical-Modern Tamil Grammar ...
A. Boologa Rambai, Ph.D.
- A Phonetic and Phonological Study of the Consonants of English and Arabic ... Abdulghani A. Al-Hattami, Ph.D. Candidate
- Some Aspects of Teaching-Learning English as a Second Language ...
R. Krishnaveni, M.A., M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D. Candidate
- The Influence of First Language Grammar (L1) on the English Language (L2) Writing of Tamil School Students: A Case Study from Malaysia ...
Mahendran Maniam, Ph.D. (ESL)
- Economics of Crime : A Comparative Analysis of the Socio-Economic Conditions of Convicted Female and Male Criminality In Selected Prisons in Tamil Nadu ...
S. Santhanalakshmi, Ph.D.
- Technique as Voyage of Discovery: A Study of the Techniques in Dante's Paradiso ...
Raji Narasimhan, M.A.
- A Critical Study of The Wasteland - Poetry as Metaphor ...
K. R. Vijaya, M.A., M.Phil.
- Language and Literature: An Exposition - Papers Presented in the Karunya University National Seminar ... Editor: J. Sundar Singh, Ph.D.
- Linguistic Purism and Language Planning in a Multilingual Context ...
L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D.
- Papers Presented in the All-India Conference on Multimedia Enhanced Language Teaching - MELT 2009 ...
L. Ramamoorthy, Ph.D. and J.R. Nirmala, Ph.D.
- A Phonological Study of Variety of English Spoken by Oriya Speakers in Western Orissa - A Doctoral Dissertation ... Arun K. Behera, Ph.D.
- Phonological Analysis of English Phonotactics of Syllable Initial and Final Consonant Clusters by Yemeni Speakers of English ... Abdulghani. M. A. Al-Shuaibi, M.A.
- Journey of Self-discovery in Anita Nair's Ladies' Coupé ... V. Chandra, M.A.
- The Literary Value of the Book of Isaiah ... Helen Unius Backiavathy, M.A.,M.Phil., Ph.D. Candidate
- A Study of Structural Duplication in Tamil and Telugu - A Doctoral Dissertation ... Parimalagantham, Ph.D.
- The Politics of Survival in the Novels of Margaret Atwood ... Pauline Das, Ph.D.
- Nonverbal Communication in Tamil Novels - A Book in Tamil ...
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Girish Karnad as a Modern Indian Dramatist - A Study ...
B. Reena, M.A., M.Phil.
- A Study of English Loan Words in Selected Bahasa Melayu Newspaper Articles...
Shamimah Binti Haja Mohideen, M.HSc. (TESL)
- The Internal Landscape and the Existential Agony of Women in Anjana Appachana's Novel LISTENING NOW, A Doctoral Dissertation ...
M. Poonkodi, Ph.D.
- Trade in the Madras Presidency, 1941 - 1947 - A Doctoral Dissertation ...
R. Jayasurya, Ph.D.
- Trends and Spatial Patterns of Crime in India - A Case Study of a District in India ...
M. Jayamala, Ph.D.
- The Trading Community in Early Tamil Society Up To 900 AD ...
R. Jeyasurya, M.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.
- A Study of Auxiliaries in the Old and the Middle Tamil ...
A.Boologarambai, M.A., Ph.D.
- History of Growth and Reforms of British Military Administration in India, 1848-1949 ...
Hemalatha, M.A., M.Phil.
- Language of Mass Media: A Study Based on Malayalam Broadcasts - A Doctoral Dissertation
K. Parameswaran, Ph.D.
- Form and Function of Disorders in Verbal Narratives - A Doctoral Dissertation ...
Kandala Srinivasacharya, Ph.D.
- Status Marking in Tamil - A Ph.D. Dissertation
P. Perumalsamy, Ph.D.
- LANGUAGE AND POWER IN COMMUNICATION ...
Editors: Jennifer M. Bayer, Ph.D., and Pushpa Pai, Ph.D.
- Onomatopoeia in Tamil ...
V. Gnanasundaram, Ph.D.
- Linguistics and Literature ...
C.Shunmugom, Ph.D., and C. Sivashanmugam, Ph.D., V. Thayalan, Ph.D. and C. Sivakumar, Ph.D. (Editors)
- Translation: New Dimensions ...
C.Shunmugom, Ph.D., and C. Sivashanmugam, Ph.D., Editors
- Language of Headlines in Kannada Dailies ...
M. N. Leelavathi, Ph.D.
- Cooperative Learning Incorporating Computer-Mediated Communication: Participation, Perceptions, and Learning Outcomes in a Deaf Education Classroom ...
Michelle Pandian, M.S.
- The Effects of Age on the Ability to Learn English As a Second Language ... Mariam Dadabhai, B.A. Hons.
- A STUDY OF THE SKILLS OF READING COMPREHENSION IN ENGLISH DEVELOPED BY STUDENTS OF STANDARD IX IN THE SCHOOLS IN TUTICORIN DISTRICT, TAMILNADU ...
A. Joycilin Shermila, Ph.D.
- A Socio-Pragmatic Comparative Study of Ostensible Invitations in English and Farsi ...
Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Ph.D.
- TEXT FAMILIARITY, READING TASKS, AND ESP TEST PERFORMANCE: A STUDY ON IRANIAN LEP AND NON-LEP UNIVERSITY STUDENTS - A DOCTORAL DISSERTATION ...
Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan, Ph.D.
- A STUDY ON THE LEARNING PROCESS OF ENGLISH
BY HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DHARMAPURI DISTRICT IN TAMILNADU
K. Chidambaram, Ph.D.
- SPEAKING STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME COMMUNICATION DIFFICULTIES IN THE TARGET LANGUAGE SITUATION - BANGLADESHIS IN NEW ZEALAND ...
Harunur Rashid Khan
- THE PROBLEMS IN LEARNING MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS IN ENGLISH AT HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL ...
Chandra Bose, Ph.D. Candidate
- THE ROLE OF VISION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING in Children with Moderate to Severe Disabilities ...
Martha Louise Low, Ph.D.
- SANSKRIT TO ENGLISH TRANSLATOR ...
S. Aparna, M.Sc.
- A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM AT THE SECONDARY LEVEL IN BANGLADESH - A COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH TO CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT by
Kamrul Hasan, Ph.D.
- COMMUNICATION VIA EYE AND FACE in Indian Contexts by M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- COMMUNICATION VIA GESTURE - Indian Contexts by
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- CIEFL Occasional Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 10
- Language Acquisition, Thought and Disorder - Some Classic Positions by
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- English in India: Loyalty and Attitudes by
- Language In Science by
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Vocabulary Education by
B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
- A Contrastive Analysis of Hindi and Malayalam by
V. Geethakumary, Ph.D.
- Language of Advertisements in Tamil Mass Media by
Sandhya Nayak, Ph.D.
- An Introduction to TESOL: Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages by
M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Transformation of Natural Language into Indexing Language: Kannada - A Case Study by B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.
- How to Learn Another Language? by M.S.Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Verbal Communication with CP Children by Shyamala Chengappa, Ph.D. and M.S.Thirumalai, Ph.D.
- Bringing Order to Linguistic Diversity - Language Planning in the British Raj by
Ranjit Singh Rangila,
M. S. Thirumalai,
and B. Mallikarjun
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Copyright © 2012
M. S. Thirumalai
Biomechanical Analysis of Different Forms of Female Walking
Mondal Shubhobrota Mondal, Indranil Mondal and Sudarsan Bhowmick
Introduction: Walking is a fundamental activity for human being. Mainly there are three types of walking viz. Normal Walking, Race Walking and Marching. While normal walking is used for locomotion, Marching is used by the army and police personnel for locomotion in a disciplined manner and race walking is a competitive sport. In the process of walking leg movements are primary but the arm movements have also important role. The purpose of the present study was to analyze and compare some selected mechanical parameters of these three forms of walking and compare them.
Methods:For the present study fifteen females from different groups of walking were selected as the subjects. Among them five were National level NCC cadets, five were National level race walkers and the rest five were normal females. The movements of all three types of walking were recorded using video-graphic technique. Afterwards the recorded movements were projected frame to frame and kinegrams were drawn. From the kinegram the kinematic parameters were analyzed using appropriate software. Selected kinematic parameters were velocity of Cg, movement amplitudes of leg and arm.
Results and Discussion: Mean velocity of Race Walking was 3.98m/s, Normal Walking 1.35m/s and Marching 0.99m/s. Mean Stride Length for Race Walking was 1.17m, for Normal Walking was 0.69m and for Marching 0.50m. The mean Arm Amplitude for Race Walking was117.40, for Normal Walking 64.60, and for Marching 170.20. All the inter-group differences were statistically significant at 0.01 level.
Conclusion: On the basis of results, following conclusions were drawn. The velocity of the main body and leg amplitude were maximum for the race walking and minimum for marching-group.
Keywords: Walking, Marching and biomechanical analysis.
Walking is a fundamental racial activity for human beings. A child learns walking in natural process of growth and development and performs it throughout life. Leg movements are the primary movements for this locomotion process. But, a close look into the movement structure of walking clearly indicates that the arms also move in certain coordinative pattern of leg movements. Many studies have been conducted to analyze the gait pattern of individuals, where the arm movements have also been studied. General conclusions drawn in most of these studies emphasize the characteristics and contribution of arm swing to the leg movements as well as the movements of the whole body. By nature arm swing movements are just opposite in direction of the leg movements. Thus, the left arm swings forward with the forward movement of right leg. The main purpose of arm movements, as has been concluded, is to help the body to maintain balance during the process of locomotion.
Walking has many forms- normal walking, race walking, marching etc. With the change of form, the arm movements also alter in these cases. Present study was planned to study and analyze the nature of some selected kinematic parameters of arm movements in the three different forms of walking as mentioned above in relation to the leg movements and total body movement, and to compare them.
This is only the beginning part of the article. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO READ THE ENTIRE ARTICLE IN PRINTER-FRIENDLY VERSION.
Mondal Shubhobrota Mondal
Bakulia N N Girls High School
Assistant Professor Department of Physical Education
Professor Department of Physical Education
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