Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 3 : 1 January 2003

Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Associate Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
         Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
         B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.




  • E-mail your articles and book-length reports to or send your floppy disk (preferably in Microsoft Word) by regular mail to:
    M. S. Thirumalai
    6820 Auto Club Road #320
    Bloomington, MN 55438 USA.
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    B. Mallikarjun,
    Central Institute of Indian Languages,
    Mysore 570006, India
    or e-mail to
  • Your articles and booklength reports should be written following the MLA, LSA, or IJDL Stylesheet.
  • The Editorial Board has the right to accept, reject, or suggest modifications to the articles submitted for publication, and to make suitable stylistic adjustments. High quality, academic integrity, ethics and morals are expected from the authors and discussants.

Copyright © 2001
M. S. Thirumalai


B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.

1. Introduction

The concept Indexing has opened new avenues to project the metadata in any manner the research demands. Here is one such way that presents the contribution published in journals and anthologies during the year 2000 January to December. The articles reflect the study on Indian languages and linguistics.

1.1. Approach to the Study

This research obtained the details of 247 articles for analysis. The data was collected from the journals published in India, Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts, Vol 34, EBSCO database, and Economic and Political Weekly. The study limited, regrettably, its focus on the articles published in English and on Indic languages. The following search strategies were adopted: all Indian languages mentioned individually, names of contributors of Indian origin, topics in subject search, etc., were collected. In the EBSCO database for online search, the Academic Search premier and ERIC database were selected. Also search for related words and search within the full text of the articles were done limiting the result to one year, namely, January to December 2000. The list of articles was displayed with their link files. Some articles had Abstracts prepared by the author, and few had full text. The Search terms were in hypertext in all the fields. The selected articles were fed into MS Access for further analyses and retrieval. An alphabetical list of contributions is presented in Annexure 1. This study presents the patterns and the content of the data collected.

1.2. Study of Pattern

1.2.1 Authorship Pattern

The authorship pattern can be studied in two ways. They are,

  • Multiple authorship pattern
  • Author productivity

1.2.2. Multiple Authorship Pattern

The multiple authorship pattern or research coordination in Linguistics is not sharply defined. It has already been inferred that, in linguistics, research is mostly individualistic rather than team- oriented. It is seen only in interdisciplinary topics, experiment-oriented studies, and Multi-language-oriented researches (Sharada 1991). The present study also supports the finding of my earlier study of single author contribution versus research co-ordination. From the above sample, in total only 35 papers were multiple-authored. Two authors have jointly contributed for 26 articles; three authors for 7, and 2 articles are by more than four authors. The statement made by Rogge (1976) "Anthropologists either by nature or by tradition, tend to be loaners and atleast 50 to 60 years behind chemists in the trend toward multiauthorship" is true also for the linguists. He suggests that a restructuring of the academic reward system may be one method of encouraging collaboration among anthropologists. This holds good for linguists also, especially in the Indian situation.

1.2.3. Author Productivity

Table 1 given below depicts the Rank list of authors contributing more than one paper. Author productivity is one of the measures to distinguish eminent scholars in a field.

Author Productivity

Out of the total sample, 20 authors have contributed more than one paper. Maximum contribution is by Wali, and Manjali (5 each). D. N. S. Bhat continues to be one among the prolific authors(Sharada 1987 & 1989). Two articles are by 11 authors. The critical issue here is that the time span considered for the present study is only one year. So most of the authors have contributed one article each except the authors mentioned in this Table.

1.2.4. Geographical Distribution of Authors

The affiliation of authors was available for only 158 articles. For the rest, affiliation could not be traced. The contributions are from the following states in India:

Statewise Rank List

More than 37 percent of the articles were contributed from India, and the rest from abroad. About twenty percent of the contribution within India was mainly among the four States, New Delhi ranking first with 15 articles. Among the contributions from abroad, 16 articles were from USA and 40 articles were from 19 different countries such as Canada, USSR, Spain, Germany, etc.

Further, the data was analyzed considering the Universities and Institutions in India and abroad . In total, 118 contributions were from the universities out of which 52 papers were from India and the rest from abroad. Jawaharlal University topped the list. In total, 40 Institutions contributed, and out of this list 35 articles were from India and the rest from abroad. So, the scholars working on Indic languages from abroad have contributed more research articles than those staying in India. Also contribution from the institutions run or established by the Government of India working in the language and linguistics domain is negligible. This is in contrast to my earlier finding that revealed that the contributions from such institutes topped the list (Sharada 1990). The scholars of these institutions need to make a review of their involvements, research pursuits, and methods of publishing or publicizing their accomplishments.

1.3. Journal Preference

Indian journals have published 182 articles and the remaining 65 were published in foreign journals. Out of this, 115 Indian authors preferred publishing their contribution in Indian Journals only. The contributions from other countries included those of forty Indians residing abroad and they have opted for the foreign journals for their publication. Out of the total contributions, 186 were Articles, 48 were Book Reviews, 1 Book Notice, 9 Notes and Discussion, and 3 Review articles. Though Indian journals are very limited in number, linguists from India prefer Indian journals only to get their articles published. This trend noted by my earlier research still continues (Sharada 1990).

1.4. Subject Dispersion

Mentioned below is the list of topics within Linguistics that the scholars have chosen to write their papers on.

Subject dispersion

The findings on the subject dispersion in my earlier study reflected the preference of Indian scholars more towards the well-developed topics than towards the newly developing ones as their preferred fields of research (Sharada 1990). The present study also supports the earlier findings with a minor difference relating to the preference ranking of the topics: 20% contribution for Syntax, 19% for Sociolinguistics, followed by 10% Applied Linguistics and 9% Semantics. Topics that have not received adequate attention have to be taken up seriously for research, and there is an urgent need to develop the discipline with adequate attention to interdisciplinary topics also.

2. Language-wise Analysis

A book review article by Barbara Wallraff reviewed the book published by World Almanac & Book of Facts. This article "Languages Spoken by at Least 1 Million People (2000)" includes all the Indian languages spoken by at least one million people, as stated in its title. English is spoken by 372 million people. Yet English is still the world's second most common native language, though it is likely to be replaced from its second position to the South Asian linguistic group whose leading members are Hindi and Urdu, within fifty years. In 2050, according to a model of language use that The English Company developed and named "engco" after itself, the world will hold 1,384 million native speakers of Chinese, 556 million of Hindi and Urdu, and 508 million of English. The article also states "Hindi and Urdu are essentially the same language, Hindustani. As the official language of Pakistan, it is written in a modified Arabic script and called Urdu. As the official language of India, it is written in the Devanagari script and called Hindi."

It is a known fact that the above statement was true before independence or in pre-independence India, before they developed into official literary languages. In the past Hindustani emerged as a commonly used spoken form. Hindustani was a product of Hindi and Urdu. When Hindustani was written in Arabic script it took more and more Persian and Arabic loans for its development, while Hindi written in Devanagari script, depended more on Sanskrit loans for its development. Hence Hindi and Urdu parted from each other. So, keeping all these facts in view in the present state of art, the above statement is too simplistic.

Coming to the present sample data, major contribution are made to the Dravidian and Indo-Aryan families of languages. In addition to general work on Dravidian languages, a few papers were on Kannada, Tamil, and Telugu. In addition to general work on Indo-Aryan languages, work is done on Assamese, Bengali, Hindi, Kashmiri, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, and Urdu. More than five papers were on Kashmiri (8), Hindi (7) and Tamil (5). The rest of the languages mentioned here have less than four (4) contributions each. In addition, three papers were there on Indian English.

In my earlier study, the language-wise distribution showed that the researchers worked on Hindi, English, Tamil, Bengali, Sanskrit, Urdu, Kannada, Malayalam, and Maithili as per the rank list (Sharada 1990). We find that the contributions for languages like Kashmiri and Sindhi that were negligible as per my earlier study are now in the forefront. We also see that the Tribal languages continue to draw hardly any attention from the scholars in the present study also. There are hundreds of such languages in India, and the study of these languages will have great beneficial social impact on these marginalized communities.

3. Content Analysis of Indic Articles

Some of the major subject headings have been chosen in this study, and the content of articles are discussed here.

General Linguistics

M. S. Andronov, in his "A Guide to Russian Publications on South Asian Linguistics," aims to facilitate the search for pertinent books and articles published in Russian on South Asian languages. Since it is intended for readers outside Russia, the entries are transliterated in Roman and the titles of books and articles translated into English. In the information on articles published in journals or collection of papers the names of the latter are abbreviated, and abbreviations are explained at the end. The excellent subject index appended to the Guide makes the search for necessary items easier.


Probal Dasgupta raises a question as to "whether generative grammar can make serious use of lexicological ideas in syntax and semantics". This paper explores certain ways in which lexicology can lead to explanatory adequacy with respect to issues of the ignored elements in standard approaches to linguistics, without losing the major results of mainstream work. The exploration here focuses on the methodology and its potential, less on the phenomena themselves, and is accordingly limited in scope and depth.

S. D. Majumdar discusses the administrative technical terms in Bangla and states the following points:

  1. Major portion of the administrative technical terms in Bangla is of tatsama origin.
  2. Tatsama words are not found in the regular spontaneous speech. This has hindered the widespread use of this Bangla registral variation and therefore less popular among the common people.
  3. Technical terms formed by loan translation are less popular due to its artificiality.
  4. Borrowing foreign elements and tadbhava origin terms are comparatively more popular because of their spontaneous flow and evolution in the language taken place in the course of time.

Descriptive Linguistics

Sabine Iatridou discusses the grammatical ingredients of Counter Factuality (CF) and states that "similarly to English, many Indo-Aryan languages (Punjabi, Nepali, Hindi, Assamese, Sindhi, Bengali) have a morpheme that marks ongoing events only, but none of those morphemes are a sine qua non of CF morphology".


G.Uma Maheshwar Rao states, "Phonological correspondences of dissimilar sounds between Mongolian and Dravidian may be taken as the crucial evidence of their genetic relationship". He provides evidence in the form of lexical cognates and phonological correspondences.

J. Prahbakara Rao's article "Towards An Explanatory Paradigm In Phonology" deals with the analysis of the motives and aims of modern phonology from systemic - determinative linguistic point of view.

Bh. Krishnamurti discusses the regularity of Sound Change Through Lexical Diffusion: A Study of "s". Gondi, a Dravidian language spoken by 2.2 million people in central India, is a chain of dialects, some of which are not mutually intelligible. This study looked at a two-step sound change, responsible for this dialect division. M. B. Emeneau and G. Cardona present several issues related to Oriental languages and literatures along with phonological history of Dravidian languages, interpretation, and paraphrase of Vakyapadiya.


D. N. S. Bhat is of the opinion that "typological studies provide such a basis for the formulation of grammatical theories, as they are primarily concerned with the differences that exist among languages". He has tried to point out, some of the interesting differences that he has noticed between Tibeto-Burman and Dravidian languages and also correlate some of these differences and to provided functional explanations for them wherever possible.

Bhat does not lag behind in stating where Caldwell has misled either by the traditional grammars of Dravidian languages or by the grammatical traditions (apparently of the European stream) that Caldwell had been using. "The former approach helps to understand and appreciate his contribution to the subject, whereas the latter approach helps us to advance our knowledge". Bhat proposes to follow the latter approach in this paper. He has pointed out in this paper certain discrepancies and a deficiency that he has noticed in Caldwell's A Comparative grammar of the Dravidian languages. He promptly admits that this is not meant for belittling Caldwell's enormous contribution to our understanding of comparative Dravidian but states that "the only way to advance in any given subject is by critically examining the writings of previous scholars."

Sabine Iatridou, in his paper "The Grammatical Ingredients of Counter factuality"(CF) states that "the Indo-Aryan languages, Punjabi, Hindi, Bhojpuri, Gujarati, Bengali, and Marathi must always use their habitual marker in CF morphology, even when there is no habitual or generic meaning; that is, we are dealing with a fake Hab."

R. Amrutavalli, in her "Investigation in Kannada clause structure," has unveiled some issues of broader theoretical significance and suggests that "tense is an epiphenomenon and that it is the specification of mood that serves to confer finiteness and to locate a predication in the real world."

D. N. S. Bhat examines the word-formation rule and his hypothesis is that "word - formation rules manifest systematic functional differences and that these differences are correlated with the syntactic classes for which these rules furnish words".

Usha Lakshmanan, in her paper "The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children," reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects.

J. Vacek discusses the Old Tamil words missing in the DEDR and offers their etymological relation with the DEDR etyma and also with possible Altaic and Uralic parallels.

S. Rajendran, while discussing on the "Strategies In The Formation Of Compound Verbs In Tamil," states that "Tamil builds up its stock of verbs, not by suffixation but by compounding a noun with a verb, which can be called as a verbalizer. Suffixation, that was a process in the formation of verbs in the past is no longer in vogue now. Tamil has only a limited number of basic verbs or simple verbs. During its days of contact with Sanskrit, Tamil was piling up with its verb stock by verbs from Sanskrit. It made use of a process of reduction and suffixation by which it converted the Sanskrit nouns into verbs (e.g. pirayanam 'travel (N)' + pirayani 'traveller'). When the borrowing from Sanskrit to Tamil is discouraged, Tamil resort to coin new verbs by the process of compounding. The N + V combination is a productive process of forming new verbs from the already existing stock of verbs and nouns".

Bhavani Saravanan, while discussing the " Morphotactics: Patterns in Tamil morphology," claims that "lexical items are marked as belonging to specific lexical categories. Given constraints that is specific to lexical categories, as well as the unpredictable distribution of irregularity in Tamil". She rgues that "well-formed ness constraints on word-shape are part of the lexicon itself, part of the grammatical, morpho syntactic and categorical information makeup of the lexical entry".

B. Vijayanarayana, in his paper "Agreement with special reference to Telugu," argues that " Agreement in Telugu is confined to six contexts…"

Mallassery, S Radhakrishnan's paper is a discussion on the language of Malavedas. "Veetaas has got a language of their own which belongs to the Dravidian family of languages. This language bears more similarities with Malayalam and little with Tamil. Veetaa language preserves many ancient features that were lost by other cultivated Dravidian languages, which are more useful to comparative and historical linguistics."

B. P. Mahapatra, while discussing the paper, "The Hypothesis Of Dravidian Sub - Stratum For Magadhan Languages," states that "this brings us to the end of our discussion on the structural parallels between the Magadhan and Dravidian nouns. The case is equally strong in the other areas of grammar, particularly in verbs and sentence formations. The only Magadhan language that lives in close symbiosis with the Dravidian languages is Oriya while all other languages of this group have little Dravidian contact. Besides, the Magadhan languages and the Dravidian languages do not in the true sense of the word belong to a single geographical area. On the contrary, Bengali, Assamese and the Bihari languages are more pronouncedly exposed to non- Dravidian areas. Therefore, it is the Dravidian sub-stratum hypothesis, which carried a lot more weight to be poised for the Magadhan languages rather than borrowing and aerial contacts.

B. N. Patnaik, in his paper "On A Certain 'Ra' In Oriya," states that this particular aspect has escaped the attention of linguists so far. The paper tries to draw the attention to an entity of the Oriya grammar that has all along escaped the notice of linguists working on this language. It is concerned with the question of labeling this entity. It proposes some solutions, each of which appears to be satisfactory at the out set, but turns out to be unsatisfactory on evaluations. It introduces the notion "Clausal Case marker" and argues that the entity under reference can be most satisfactory assigned this label.

Panchanan Mohanty, in his paper "On sonorization in Oriya," puts in the following three points:
1.Oriya sonorization rule, i.e.the change of /D, Dh/ to [R, Rh] respectively, formulated by the traditional Oriya grammarians and Oriya linguists cannot account for the total corpus of the Oriya data. So it has to be revised and reformulated in order to accommodate all the counter examples cited against the earlier rule.
2.A rule of /O/-deletion was postulated in the grammar of Oriya with the sonorization rule.
3.The cranberry morph boundary, like the word boundary, is capable of blocking phonological rules.

Kashi Wali compares wh- question strategies in Marathi and Kashmiri, and suggests that the "copying mechanism is a parametric variation of the S-structure Wh- movement strategy in tensed clauses in both the languages". The same author with Ashok K. Koul discusses Kashmiri clitics and their goal to explain the anomalies by taking into account some recent developments. Further these two authors with O. N. Koul state the traditional and modern perspective of multiple case making in Kashmiri possessive, and argue that Kashmiri possessive is not postpositional. They claim that it is in class with argument adjunct elements.

These three authors also explain the significance of topic in a V2 language with sufficient examples from kashmiri language and concludes that it is the topic that draws the finite verb to the second position. Another interesting study is the paper by Hook,P E and Koul, A K wherein they describe the undersurface of the South Asian linguistic area and more on syntax and causatives in Kashmiri with number of examples and concludes that in certain respects Kashmiri shows affinities not with the rest of South Asia but with Central and Northeast Asia.

Achala Misri Raina discusses the verb second phenomenon in Kashmiri. Estella Del Bon writes on personal inflections and order of clitics in Kashmiri. In brief, the issue of South Asian Language Review journal pertained to the year 2000 discusses different syntactical issues on Kashmiri language.

Kashi Wali & Omkar N. Koul argue that "the nominative and the absolutive case relations are structurally distinct and are governed by two distinct agreements. Their evidence is based on case and agreement of the intransitive subjects in both Kashmiri and Marathi". The same article appears in two journals, namely, Indian Linguistics and South Asian Language Review.

B. V. Pawar & N. S. Chaudhari have formulated a Context Free Grammar(CFG) for a reasonably complete set of Marathi sentences. Implementing tomita's parsing algorithm tests the power of the CFG. Its working is satisfactory. This work has demonstrated the practical utility of the CFG formalism for computerized processing of the Marathi sentences.

K. V. Subbarao demonstrates how "evidence from the study of lexical anaphors, conjunctive participles and prodrop in South Asian languages has implications to issues discussed in syntactic theory especially principles proposed in Government and binding framework and seemingly unrelated phenomena are mentally organized and reflects the cognitive capabilities of human mind in grouping together under a single head in the mental lexicon".

Probal Dasgupta offers reasons why "generative grammar should borrow, not just the notion of indices in the sense of the dependency grammarian Lucien Tesniere, but also part of its methodological habitat."

Tanmoy Bhattacharya claims that, "gerunds embedded a nominal aspectual head inside the DP and its formation is shown to constitute evidence of NP movement".

Prashant Pardesi offers a detailed alternative analysis of the Marathi passive construction.

Ghanshyam Sharma describes the strategies involved in pragmatic explanations for expressing obligations of the agent referred to in Hindi.

Achla Misri Rajna argues that "honorificity in language has been studied extensively from the point of view of social proximity and distance among the participants in speech encounters, with consequences for issues regarding language and power in society". The present paper views the phenomenon from the generative linguistic grammar perspective, focusing upon its implications for questions of language design and conditions on design.

Khateeb S. Mustafa, in his paper "Gender In Urdu And Arabic," proposes to analyze and discuss the gender-system in Urdu and Arabic and tries to look at the issues in contrastive perspects.

A few interesting papers in syntax are Seth Kulick, Robert Frank, and K. Vijayshanker 's Defective Complements in Tree Adjoining Gramma"; Jeffrey Lidz's Echo Reduplication in Kannada: Implications for a Theory of Word Formation; Rashmi Prasad, and Michael Strube's Discourse Salience and Pronoun Resolution in Hind". Sangeeta Sharma opines, while discussing her paper on Syntactical patterns in advertising language, that the "need for giving maximum information in minimum space has led to the use of modifier packed noun phrases. In the linguistic analysis of these NPs, the most frequently used structure is DENH [D-determiner, E-epithets, N-noun, H-headword]. That is a frequent use of sub-modifiers too. Concerned to sentence, the position of a clause changes according to the prominence a copywriter wants to give to the information contained in it. The normal word order deviates and use a variety of figures of speech found in imaginative literature".

Sociolinguistics, Bilingualism and Multilingualism

M. Vijayanunni while discussing the Bilingual scenario in India, is of the opinion that "Bilingualism or multilingualism has greater significance than as a mere statistic depicting the knowledge of another language, because it is a way of preserving lingo-diversity in this age when many languages in the world are fighting a losing battle for survival.It will be interesting to go into the pattern of bilingualism and trilingual among speakers of various mother tongues providing insights into the cultural and linguistic traits of different linguistic groups, their willingness or compulsion to learn other languages and the extent of interaction with other communities through the medium of languages."

Anirudh Deshpande states that the "decline of Hindi in India and abroad is a well-established fact. Ironically this downtrend became faster in independent India, owing to the growth of cosmopolitan, westernized outlook. India has worsened the situation. English is preferred to Hindi among the elite. But the knowledge of philosophy of a society cannot be developed in a language that 90 percent of the masses do not understand."

Aadil Amin Kak states that Urdu, which 40-50 years back was mainly a language learned from schools, has percolated into the ultimate citadel i.e., the home in Kashmir via the environment. Urdu, with official patronage, has also acquired a status and position, which has further helped to spread it. The process of Urdu inflow in the environment and, mainly home, if left unchecked may, with the passage of time induce Srinagarities to claim Urdu as their mother tongue instead of Kashmiri. Reading and writing skills in terms of Kashmir have also fallen among the people of Srinagar. The dwindling popularity of Kashmiri newspapers is a solid evidence of this fact. On the other hand the Urdu newspaper business is thriving.

M. Ishtiaq states that "the degree of tribal bilingualism varies both over the space and among the various tribal groups. It is interesting to note that the tribes of the north - eastern region have higher degree of bilingualism as against to those of the central region. The tribes of the southern states specially belonging to the states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu have also shown higher order of bilingualism."

The concentration of the tribal bilingual population does show some relationship with the number of the tribal groups but it does not show any relationship with the levels of bilingualism. The patterns which emerge from the study reveal that very high, high, and medium grades of concentration of the bilingual tribal population are found among few tribal communities with larger population size as against to the lower concentration which is found among the many groups spread over the larger areas of the country.

Krishna Bhattacharya is of the opinion that "for achieving maximum effectiveness with maximum speed, literacy materials should be based on contrastive multidialectal studies." Using this method, the learner will be able to switch over to the standard written language at the end."

Rajaram Mehrotra examines the phenomenon of reduction/deletion in Indian pidgin English spoken by the members of various professional groups in Varanasi, India.


The cover story by Bjeljac-Babic Ranka's 6,000 languages: an embattled heritage discusses the death of ten languages. The list of languages that died; reasons for the death of languages and threat to multilingualism are discussed.

"English rises as India's power language." a cover story by Robert Marquand reports on the popularity and importance of the English language in India.

Another cover story by Barbara Wallraff, "What Global Language?" focuses on the use of English as the universal language, and states that "yet English is still the world's second most common native language, though it is likely to cede second place within fifty years to the South Asian linguistic group whose leading members are Hindi and Urdu."

With reference to bilingualism, Evan J. Norris examines language awareness and linguistic training in American Indian bilingual programs; performance of linguistics training workshops; purpose of the linguistics session, etc. The papers collected in Meaning, Culture and Cognition volume reflect the changing perspectives and orientations on meaning, culture and cognition, providing wider picture of linguistics, both in its 'core' and 'periphery' in the context of Indian academia.

Amitav Choudhry's paper deals with India as a multilingual country and the extinction of some of its minority languages as majority languages gain ground. Points such as "Two official languages of India; What led to the development of some languages at the expense of others; Hierarchy of Indian languages; Rise in the use of English language" are discussed.

While discussing the paper "Speaking in Mother Tongues," Wilson-Smith, Anthony and Deziel, Shanda reports on linguistic changes in Canada as of 1996. "Development of Chinese as the predominant mother tongue of non-native English speaking Canadians; How languages such as Spanish and Punjabi have entered Canada's heritage language group and lists Punjabi in the Top 10 heritage language groups."

Further the cover story "Publish and Be Damned" by Wood, Chris; Nicol, John and Hunter, Jennifer focuses on the publication of the Punjabi-language newspapers in Canada. The 'Indo-Canadian times,' published by Dave Hayer after the 1998 murder of his father, who founded the paper in 1978; The political agenda of the Indo-Canadian media; Opinions against violence in the Sikh community.Neill, Heather describes the teaching technique of Alex Fellowes in Royal Shakespeare Company's Prince of Wales Shakespeare course in Stratford-Upon-Avon, England depicts in the Sample of an `Othello' rehearsal the use of Punjabi language in the plays.Toohey, Kelleen; Waterstone, Bonnie and Jule-Lemke, Allyson examines classroom activities engaged in by more and less experienced Punjabi-Sikh Grade 1 speakers of English and discusses how relationship between those speakers are implicated in their speech activities. Three occasions in this classroom are examined: A common, teacher-directed interaction; an excerpt of children at play; and a playful interaction between an adult and a group of children.

Though Hindi is of the Indo-Aryan family, one paper by Rajend Mesthrie, renders the title as "Dravidian Hindi in South Africa". His aim is to characterize a particular variety of Hindi in South Africa.

Rajendra Singh and Ad Backus explores the possibility that, "code-switching/mixing patterns can and should be considered as indices of bilingual proficiency". Rajend Mesthrie, in his regional reports, offers a brief background necessary for the understanding of the presence of South Asian languages in Mauritius. The regional report on India is written by Bh.Krishnamurti In addition to reviewing the books on Dravidian, he has provided a bibliography of significant books and papers. A similar study on North America is done by Tej K. Bhatia, and mentions that "it is the last report of the millennium that has covered the trends in South Asian linguistics in North America through 1996". Hans Henry Hock reports on the historical linguistics perspective in South Asia. He reports that "South Asia or ancient India continues to hold great significance for historical linguistics". The study is appended with a good number of references. France Mugler, while reporting on South-East Asia and the South Pacific, states that "the presence of Indian languages, of the two largest language families of India, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian, has added to the already extremely rich multilingual nature of societies in these two neighboring regions which also have in common indigenous languages of the Austronesian family."


The papers in Communication and the Recovery of the Real try to bridge the "rupture" between human discourse and material condition, aiming at recovering the real in communication


Albert E. Kim, Bangalore Srinivas, John C. Trueswell's paper discusses the Convergence of Lexicalist Perspectives in Psycholinguistics and Computational Linguistics. S. Arulmozi & P. Dasgupta, in their paper "Diglossia and education in Tamil" state that their goal is to situate the problem of choosing appropriate Tamil equivalents for English scientific terms in the context of the reception of these equivalents in crucial domains of real language use. High school education is the clearest case of such a domain.


Y. V. Geetha, discusses language and linguistic determinants of stuttering and states that "Various concomitant languages related and linguistic factors play a crucial role in the onset, development and recovery of stuttering in majority of individuals. Further states that the available theories and hypothesis on stuttering do not provide adequate explanations pertaining to the nature of the language or linguistic influences on stuttering. However, identifying and controlling these variables have important implications in the over all management of stuttering which otherwise become a life-long handicap to the individuals in terms of their all round achievements in life."

Language Teaching

K. Mahalingam, in his paper "What can go into the preparation of language instruction materials?" proposes a model for the preparation of language instruction materials keeping in view the heterogeneous social, cultural, ethnic and linguistic composition of India. It aims also to discuss in detail each component of the model and argues the necessity to identify and quantify the extent of extra and non-linguistic aspects that can go into this model.

Tariq Rahman seeks to raise a number of questions such as "what ideological biases are imparted through language teaching texts?, with what aim they are imparted?", etc. and concludes that "Urdu medium schools are meant to indoctrinate the masses into becoming religious, nationalistic and militaristic." The questions he has put forth are questions of the survival of millions in South Asia.

Suchitra Behal, in her paper "Pupils put off `boring' Hindi," reports on the survey conducted in India to determine school children's attitudes toward studying the Hindi and English languages.

Lucy Pickering and Caroline Wiltshire examines the realization of accent in Indian English (IE) compared to American English produced by the teaching assistants in similar contexts. "In teaching discourse, a lexically accented syllable is often realized in IE with a relative drop in frequency and without a reliable increase in amplitude".

B. A. Sharada stresses the need of usage of different library documents at different stages of second language teaching and learning keeping in view the eclectic method adopted in the Southern Regional Language Centre of The Central Institute of Indian Languages, Mysore.

Computational Linguistics

P. Uma Rani, while discussing her paper "A Unification-Based Approach To Natural Language Analysis," states that "Unification-based formalisms are economical because they employ only those mechanisms already assumed to be present elsewhere in the grammar and they are more expressive and more computationally tractable than other formalisms because of their mathematical properties. Furthermore, their well-built grammaticality conditions add to the efficiency of the grammars and as these formalisms possess the properties of commutative ness, associative ness and distributiveness, they could be used for both parsing and generating natural language text with the help of a single grammar".

Mark Needleman discusses the Unicode character set and the Unicode Consortium, which developed the character set and is responsible for maintaining and enhancing the set. Importance of Unicode to the library community; History of the Unicode's development; Technical aspects of the standard; Growth of new implementations in hardware and software versions of Unicode are discussed. "The Unicode Standard defines codes for characters used in the major languages written today. Among the scripts included are Latin, Greek, Bopomofo, Cyrillic, Armenian, Hebrew, Arabic, Devanagari, Bengali, Gurmukhi, Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Thai, Lao, Georgian, Tibetan, Japanese Kana, modern Korean Hangul, etc".

Literature - Theory and Criticism

Nirmal Selvamony discusses the syllogistic circles in Tolkappiyam. Syllogistic was known as kantikai in Tamil and explains kantikai under 3 major heads: etymological meaning of the term, members of kantikai, and history of the concept.

G. Chandrasekhar & H. R. Singh have tried to analyze the word-count data of certain sampled pieces of Sanskrit prose and tried to compare the results with those of foreign languages like English and Russian.

Book Reviews

Chelva Kanaganayakam analyzed the monograph written by Subha Rao, which questioned the validity of the entire corpus of Indo-Anglian writing on the grounds of relevance to an Indian audience. The review presented a criticism of Rao's work focusing on his core of his argument and the consequence of the failure of Indian writing in English.

Bernard Comrie reviewed the book The Dravidian Languages, edited by Sanford B. Steever. He stated that the volume succeeded in achieving Steever's aim to satisfy the curiosity of layman in knowing the perspective of the individual languages since the choice of languages for the descriptive sketches covers not only the genetic breadth of Dravidian but also a range of languages in terms of social function including a useful map of language location.

Rajendra Singh reviewed the book Toward a Critical Sociolinguistics edited by himself. "The overall purpose of this book is to force sociolinguists to question their current assumptions about the ways in which they should conduct research. Singh's book is a compilation of essays criticizing the state of sociolinguistics today. These essays range in scope from syntax to language planning. Singh sees current sociolinguistics as missing the 'joyfulness' of speech in an irresponsible manner". As Singh notes in his introduction, "the essays included in the book leave him with a 'sad sense of incompleteness' (p. 3). What is lacking from this book is a clear definition of what is-meant by the term 'critical sociolinguistics', along with an explanation of how we might go about it."

The same book was reviewed by E. Annamalai, arguing that "a new paradigm is to ask fundamentally different questions" because of "the dissatisfaction about the inadequacy of explanation of the phenomenon under investigation empirically and conceptually." He recorded that the papers in the book expressed such dissatisfaction about the currently dominant ways of doing Sociolinguistics and suggested a direction for change. Aparna Rao reviewed the book The Crisis in Kashmir: Portents of War, Hopes of Peace, by Sumit Ganguly. She stated that, "Ganguly refers to the conflict as 'part of the second wave of ethnolinguistic assertion' , but fails to note that while the Kashmiri language played a major role in the concept and practice of kashmiriyat even in the 1980s, it was no longer taught in schools from the 1960s onwards, and was entirely replaced by Urdu -- the official language of Pakistan."

Arjuna Prakrama reviewed The native speaker: multilingual perspectives edited by Rajendra Singh. This book explores an important and theoretically vexed issue on the 'native speaker', using perspectives and insight derived from the experience of language contexts in which English, coexists with other languages in multilingual settings.

Kathleen Connors reviewed the book Social psychological perspectives on second language learning edited by R.K.Agnihotri, A.L.Khanna, and I.Sachdev. She wrote that this was a collection of articles on the role of attitudes and motivation in language learning, use, and evaluation, and rather a preponderance of Indian linguists amongst the contributors was felt throughout the book; the data was well chosen and presented in a way that reflected a unique understanding of these languages.

Jayakant Lele reviewed the book Nehru and the language politics of India by Robert D. King. The main focus of the book was "on defense of Nehru's feet-dragging on two major policies while he was the prime Minister of India: linguistic reorganization of the states and adoption of Hindi as the national language." King, however, also had a theory about language politics.

Tobert D King reviewed Language, Education and Society by Bh. Krishnamurti, an anthology of his selected publications. King calls the author of this book as "tough minded and commonsensical". Luc V Baronian reviewed Annie Montaut edited Les lanngues d'Asie du sud that discusses a general perspective of multilingual South Asia and includes a history of Indian linguistics and the political history of India. Otto M. Ikome reviews R.Narasimhan's Language behavior, acquisition and evolutionary history. "Speaking or producing language in any format is, for the author, a 'behavior' akin to sleeping, dancing, crying, or frowning. The author, being an information scientist, had the courage to provide some pointers to linguists".

Ken C. Erickson reviewed the book Lectures against Sociolinguistics by Rajendra Singh. According to him "the ideas about power and linguiticality within the book will be an essential element in training the next generation of scholars interested in social world." The same book has been reviewed by E. Annamalai. He states that, "The issues raised in the book about current sociolinguistic studies are of fundamental importance to the discipline and to society, and it is vital to alert students to them. This is done admirably in the book with Singh's self-assured, informed, articulate, combative style, in an engaging manner."

Rajender Singh edited an anthology, Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000. This is reviewed by P. P. Giridhar. After reviewing each paper Giridhar concludes that, "it is indeed a rich feas . . . for the South Asianist for whom it is more than the sum of its parts."

Anjani Kumar Sinha reviewed the book Urdu: an essential grammar and commented that it was a very good book which explained grammatical points lucidly and precisely.

Ludmila Khokhlova reviewed the book A Historical Syntax of late Middle Indo-Aryan(Apabhramsha) and stated that, "this is the second book aimed to remove the lacuna in the knowledge of Middle Indo-Aryan dialects."

R. L. Schmidt and Meena Grover reviewed the book How do you say it in English: A Dictionary of Hindi - English idioms and proverbs and concluded that "the work is useful, compendious and unique and its usefulness is not seriously impaired by its minor defects."

Other book reviews worth mentioning were B. Damodar Rao's review of the book The Calf Became an Orphan: A Study in Contemporary Kannada Fiction, by Robert J. Zydenbos.

Victor Golla reviewed the textbook An Introduction to the Languages of the World, by Anatole V. Lyovin.

David L Gitomer reviewed the book The Sanskrit Epics by John Brockington. George Cardona, reviewed the book Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and the Other Indo-Aryan Languages, by Richard Salomon. The same book has been reviewed by Richard H. Davis also. Alice Davison reviewed the book Kashmiri: A Cognitive-Descriptive Grammar, by Kashi Wali and Omkar N. Koul.

4. Some observations on Indian linguistic journals

The coverage for the present study is only one year (the year 2000). We notice that the articles published were really thought-provoking. Indian linguistics research actually demonstrated its depth in these articles. Starting from the Magadhan languages upto the computer applications to Indian languages including the Unicode almost all aspects were dealt with.

The following may be suggested as the few minor flaws in relation to the Linguistics journals published in India.

A periodical is expected to be published at fixed/regular intervals. Through the journals, an author will have an immediate platform to present his/her findings and receive the readers' opinion. It is expected that the periodicals would be published at certain regular intervals and that these journal would maintain their status in the discipline. However, here are accounts of journals with the Volume pertaining to the year 2000 brought out in June 2002. Though it is mentioned as quarterly, half yearly, etc., often these issues were all clubbed in one single volume. Among the Linguistics journals published in India, IJDL (International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics) continues to be published following a regular schedule.

One more expectation about any journal is that it should contain the latest developments in the discipline. As for the Indian journals, how far this statement is true? In one journal the author has stated that the paper was prepared during 1996. If the journal is theme-based and feels that it is incomplete without the inclusion of such an article, then the article also commands some value after it is updated. There are examples of the same articles appearing in two journals published in India, which is an ethical issue, and such a trend does not sound good. There are also the instances of publishing articles that fall outside the domain of focus of the journal, just because these articles may have been from a foreign author. These few factors certainly do not contribute to the healthy academic development of the discipline.

The Annexure lists the articles covered in this study.


Sharada, B.A.(1989) Ressearch in Dravidian Linguistics: A quantitative Analysis. IJDL, Vol XVIII(1).P.111-123.

Sharada, B.A. and Devaki, L(1990) Contribution of Journal articccles by Indian Linguists at the international scene. Annals of Library Science and Documentation Vol.37(1),P.35-52.

Sharada, B.A.(1991) Multiple-authorship pattern in Linguistics. Library Science Vol.28(2), pp.96-99.

Singh, Udaya Narayana (1999) Indic Articles: an over view. Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000. Edited by Rajender Singh. New Delhi: Sage Publications.



Aaltonen, Sirkku . The Translation studies reader Ed. By Lawrece Venuti. London,Routledge,1999 . Indian Linguistics. Vol.61(1-4), pp.175-177 .

Abbi, Anvita . Redundancies and restructuring in Bangani syntax:A case of language contact in Western Himalaya .IJDL. Vol.29(1), pp.47 -56 .

Ahmed, Sohail . Thematic and linguistic explorations. In Amitav Ghosh's "The Shadow Lines". Linguistics Today. Vol.6 (1-2), pp.61-66 .

Alasundaram, R . Sea-trade of Pondicherry, 1736-47. PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1), pp.53-62 .

Albert E. Kim, Bangalore Srinivas, John C. Trueswell. The convergence of lexicalist perspectives in psycholinguistics and computational linguistics. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics. Vol.6(3).

Alcaraz, M. Ángeles . Exploring medical Spanish. International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2).

Al-Khaytaybeh, Majid Mohammad . The impact of the individual difference variables on vocabulary learning strategies . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(2), pp.85-98 .

Allan, Kieth. Words, worlds and reference: old ground revisited. International Journal of Communication. Vol.10(1-2), pp.181-210.

Al-Zoubi, Mohd Q R . The issue of untranslatability in the process of translation . Linguistics Today . Vol.6(1-2), pp.80-84 .

Amritavalli,R . Kannada clause structure. The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.7 - 30 .

Anabel , Borja Albi . The concept of equivalence in the translation of medical and legal texts . International Journal of Translation. Vol. 12(1-2).

Ananthanarayana,H S . Formalization of grammar:Paaninian techniques . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1), pp.9-16 .

Ananthanarayana,H.S . Essays on vedic and Ino-European culture. By Boris Oguibenine. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass,1998. Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.179-182 .

Ananthanarayana,H.S. A missing metathesis in middle Indo-Aryan . Indian Linguistics .Vol.61(1-4), pp.1-2 .

Andonov, M.S . A guide to Russian publications on South Asian linguistics . Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.117-174 .

Andronov, M.S . An Etymologer's remarks on Bare-Stem verbals in Old Tamil. Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.3-7 .

Anirudh Deshpande . Hindi's decimation . Economic and Political Weekly . Vol.35.August 19-25.

Anirudh Deshpande . Hindustani in India . Economic and Political Weekly . Vol.35, April 8 .

Annamalai, E . Lectures against sociolinguistics By Rajendra Singh . Journal of Pragmatics . Vol.32 (5).

Annamalai, E . Towards a critical Rajendra Singh. Amsterdam: John Benjamines,1996 . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1), pp.99-104 .

Ansarin, Ali Akbar & Syal, Pushpinder . Communication strategies revisited: The influence of proficiency on the selection of strategies: The authors out maneuvered? . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(1), pp.71-86 .

Ansary ,Hasan & Esmat Baba . Towards the characterization of genre: speech act of definition: A criterion for genre identity . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(2), pp.67-84 .

Anuradha Ghosh . A Critique of Madhavacarya's Lokayata darkana as presented in his sarvadarkana sangraha. Language Forum .Vol.26( 1-2).

Asenjo, F. G. The reality of the word. Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2).

Bahri, Ravinder Kaur . Equivalence and culture transfer in translation: An exercise in applied translation studies . International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2)

Balambal,V . Relevance of Cilappatikaram in the new millenium . Pulamai(Journal in Tamil) .Vol.26(1), pp.81-93 .

Balasubramaniam,P . An aspect of phonology in the standard spoken Tamil of Malaysia .Pulamai(Journal in Tamil) . Vol26(2), pp.83-92 .

Bandyopadhayay, Debaprasad . Cyber-multilingualism. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(2), pp.117-130 .

Bandyopadhyay, Debaprasad . Folksong and classical song: The discursive formation of dividing practice . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1).pp.63-70 .

Bapuji,B R . The yearbook of South Asian language and linguistics. Rajendra Singh. New Delhi: Sage Publications,1998. PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1), pp.105-106 .

Baronian,Luc V . Les langues d'Asie du sud. Faits de langues Ed. By Annie Montaut. Paris:Orphys,1997 The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.266-269 .

Basu, Alaka Malwade; Amin, Sajeda . Conditioning factors for fertility decline in Bengal: History, language identity, and openness… . Population & Development Review. Vol. 26 (4), pp.761, 34p, 2 charts .

Becker,Thomas . On the non-hierarchical structure of compounds: A reply to Singh and Dasgupta. The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.283-292.

Behal, Suchitra . Pupils put off `boring' Hindi. Times Educational Supplement. 06/30/2000 Issue 4382, pp.14, 1/9p .

Bhaduri,Saugata . Cognition and significance in the yoga system of philosophy . Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2).

Bhat, DNS . An assessment of Caldwell. IJDL . Vol.29(2), pp.1-18 .

Bhat, D N S . Dravidian and Tibeto-Burman: A typological comparison . IJDL . Vol.29(1), pp.9-40 .

Bhat, D N S . Functional constraints on word-formation rules. The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.31-47 .

Bhat, D.N.S. Adjective. In Morphology : An international handbook on inflection and word-formation.(reprint)

Bhatia, Sunil . Language Socialisation and the Construction of Socio-moral meanings. Journal of Moral Education . Vol. 29(2), p. 149.

Bhatia, Tej K . Regional reports: North America. The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.213-220 .

Bhattacharya,Tanmoy . Gerundial aspect and NP movement The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000. pp.123-146 .

Bickel,Balthasar & Yadava,Yogendra P . A fresh look at grammatical relations in Indo-Aryan . Lingua . Vol.110(5) .

Biswas , Santanu . Jacques Lacan, Doctor Faustus and the polyneics complex of man. Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2) .

Biswas, Prasenjit . Grammar, language and society: contemporary Indian contributions. Ed by Rajendra Singh. New Delhi: Sage Publications,1997. Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(1), pp.105-111 .

Bjeljac-Babic, Ranka . 6,000 languages: an embattled heritage . UNESCO Courier. Apr2000, p18 .

Blekhman, Michael S. et al . Computer-assisted English - Russian Dictionary . International Journal of Translation. Vol. 12(1-2).

Bon,Estella Del. Personal inflexions and order of clitics in Kashmiri. South Asian Language Review . Vol.10 (1 & 2), pp.129-142 .

Boopathy, S . Atlas of the languages and ethnic communities of South Asia. By Ronald J. & L.Breton. New Delhi: Sage Publications,1997 . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies Vol.10(1).pp.107-108 .

Brandt, Elizabeth A. Applied linguistic anthropology and American Indian language renewal. Human Organization . Vol. 47 (4), pp322.

Brokaw, Galen . The Language Encounter in the Americas, 1492-1800.Ed. By Edward C. Gray and Norman Fiering. Atlantic Monthly . Sep2000.

Canagarajah, A.Suresh . The native speaker: Multilingual perspectives. Ed. By Rajendra Singh. English for Specific Purposes . Vol.19 (3) .

Cardona, George . Indian epigraphy: A guide to the study of inscriptions in sanskrit, Prakrit by Richard Salomon. Language. Vol. 76(2), pp454, 3p .

Chakrabarty, Debasish . Kanada's Vaisesika Sutra: A Translation . Language Forum Vol.26(1-2).

Chandrakar,G and Singh,H.R . Word-count analysis of Sanskrit prose. Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.63-67 .

Chandrill, Patricia . Under Fire and ice:Public utilities and public out cry after a natural disaster. International Journal of Communication . Vol.10(1-2), pp.99-126 .

Chitnis, Suma . The challenge of access in Indian higher education. Liberal Education Vol. 86 (4), pp.579 .

Choudhry, Amitav . India: bursting at the linguistic seams. (cover story) . Unesco Courier . April 2000, pp.33.

Choudhury,Romita . Representations of language gender and subalternity in Indian women's writing in English . Dissertations Abstracts International,A:The Humanities and Social Sciences . Vol.60 (8).

Claude Panaccio . Des Signes Dans L'intellect (In French). Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2).

Comparini, Lisa & Bhatia, Sunil . Indexing self-other relationships through directives Proceedings of the Annual Boston University conference on Language Development,24.1.2000 .

Comrie, Bernard . The Languages . Journal of Linguistics . Vol. 36 (3), pp. 640 .

Connors, Kathleen . Social psychological perspectives on second language learning, Ed. By R.K.Agnihotri, A.L.Khanna and I.Sachdev, New Delhi: SagePublications,1998 The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.255-257 .

Coomaraswamy,P . Chilappatikaram. Tamizhiyal:Journal of Tamil Studies . Vol.57 & 58, pp.167-178 .

Dascal,Marcelo . Types of polemics and Types of polemical moves . Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2)

Dasgupta, Probal . Parametric studies in Malayalam syntax. By K.A.Jayaseelan. New Delhi:Allied . Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.183-191 .

Dasgupta,Probal . Tesniere indicators and Indian languages The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.109-119 .

Dasgupta, Probal . Pace Panini:towards a word-based theory of morphology by Eord,Alan, Singh,Rajendra & Martohardjono,Gita Journal of Pragmatics . Vol 32(4).

Dasgupta, Probal . Sanskrit,English and dalits . Economic and Political Weekly . Vol.35,April 15-21.

Dash,S.C . The concept of upadesa in Sanskrit grammar by Banamali Bismal, Allahabad: Padmaja Prakaashan Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4) .

Dash, S.C . The samasa saktinirnaya of Kaunda Bhatta. By Banamali Biswal, Allahabad: Padmaja Prakaashan . Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.193-194 .

Davis, Richard H. . Indian epigraphy: a guide to the study of iInscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and other Indo-Aryan languages,' by Richard Salomon . Journal of Asian Studies . Vol. 59(5), pp.478, 3p .

Davison, Alice . Kashmiri :A cognitive-descriptive grammar, by Kashi Wali and Omkar N. Koul. . Anthropological Linguistics. Fall2000,Vol. 42 (3), pp.414, 4p .

Deborah D. K. Ruuskanen . The Translator's Reality . International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2).

Deledalle-Rhodes, Janice . Ambiguity, interpretation and meaning in the work of HenryJames: A Peircean Approach . Language Forum . Vol.26{1-2) .

Dhar,Nazir Ahmed . Grierson's dialect classification of Kashmiri language revisited . Linguistics Today . Vol.6(1-2), pp.69-79 .

Elizarenkova,Tatiana . About the status of sound in the Rgveda . Elementa . Vol.4(3) .

Emeneau, M.B and Cardona, George . Brief communications. Journal of the American Oriental Society . Vol. 120 ( 2) .

English Only, But Where?. Christian Science Monitor .Vol. 93 (12),pp.10.

Enoh, Tabe Florence Ako . On Wh-Operators in Kenyang . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(2), pp.99-115 .

Enoh,Tabe Florence Ako . Is language planning an indispensable tool for developing nations? the case of Cameroon . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(1) pp.53-69 .

Erickson,Ken C . Lectures against sociolinguistics By Rajendra Singh. New York:Peter Lang,1996. The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.277-280 .

Factfile on.. Languages. New Internationalist . Oct 2000 Issue 328, pp. 4.

Faruqui,Ather . On Urdu - how not to write the history of Urdu literature and other essays By Ralph Russell. New Delhi:Oxford University Press,1999 . Economic and Political Weekly . Vol.35, May 27-June 2.

Fitzgerald,James L . Sanskrit pita and saikya/saaikiya:two terms of iron and steel technology in the Mahabharata . Journal of the American Oriental Societys .Vol 120(1).

Geetha, Y V . Language and linguistic determinants of stuttering . IJDL . Vol.29(1) pp.91-106 .

Ghotra,Balvinder S . On riding the phenomenon of borrowing of misnomers . Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.9-12 .

Gill, Harjeet Singh . In the beginning was the word .Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2).

Giridhar,P P . Yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics 2000 . South Asian Language Review . Vol.10(1 & 2) p.143-147 .

Gitomer, David L. The Sanskrit epics, by John Brockington.. Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 59(3), pp765.

Golla, Victor . An introduction to languges of the world ' by Anatole V. Lyovin'. . International Journal of American Linguistics . Vol. 66(4),pp.579 .

Gopinathan Nair, B . Genetic comparison: Family tree in Dravidian since Caldwell . IJDL . Vol.29(2) pp.33-44 .

Guadalupe Aguado de Cea & Antonio Pareja-Lora . A Competition Model for the Generation of Complementation Patterns in Machine Translation . International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2).

Gupta, Santosh . Aphasia and cognitive sciences: problems of appraisal tests in indian context . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26(1),pp.87-97 .

Gupta,Vishwa:Robillard,Serge and Pelletier,Claude . Automation of locality recognition in ADAS plus . Speech communication . Vol.31(4),pp.321-328 .

Hallett,Richard W . Towards a critical sociolinguistics.Ed.By.Singh,Rajendra . World Englishes . Vol.19 (1) .

Harris,Roy . Gulliver and the Semioticians . Language Forum . Vol.26( 1-2).

Hock,Hans Henrich . Regional Reports:South Asia:Historical The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . pp.220-237 .

Hook,Peter Edwin and Koul,Ashok Kumar . Under the surface of the South Asian Linguistic area. South Asian Language Review . Vol.10(1 & 2) pp.103-112 .

Iatridou, Sabine . The grammatical ingredients of counterfactuality . University of Pennsylvania . Vol. 31( 2), pp.231.

Ikome,Otto M . Language behaviour:acquisition and evolutionary history. New Delhi: Sage,1998.R.Narasimhan The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . P.270-276 .

Ikome,Otto M . Lectures against sociolinguistics By Rajendra Singh. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal,1998. Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4) pp.197-210 .

Ingrid Kurz . Theory and practice in the training of interpreters . International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2).

Inmaculada Alvarez De Mon Y Rego . Cohesion in written texts: an analysis comparing English and Spanish . International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2)

Irène Rosier Catach . Aristotle and Augustine, two models of occidental medieval semantics Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2).

Ishikawa,Masataka . Language behaviour:Acquisition and evolutionary history.By Rangaswamy Narasimhan. New Delhi:Sage Publication.1998. Word . Vol.51(1), pp.73-77 .

Ishtiaq,M . Patterns of distribution of bilingual tribal population in India . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1).pp.71-80 .

Itagi,N H . Mixed code as market metaphor . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies, . Vol.10(2).

Jain, S.; Sharma, A. . Team learning of computable languages . Theory of Computing Systems. Vol. 33(1), pp.35, 24p .

Jeffrey Lidz . Echo reduplication in Kannada: implications for a theory of word formation . University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, . Vol.6(3).

José Mateo & Francisco Yus . Insults: a relevance-theoretic taxonomical approach to their translation . International Journal of Translation . Vol. 12(1-2) .

Joseba Abaitua . Is it worth learning translation technology?. International Journal of Translation .Vol. 12(1-2)

Kachru,Braj B . Language in Nigeria:essays in honor of Ayo Bamgbose Ed. By. Owolabi, Kola . World Englishes . Vol.10 (1) .

Kak,Aadil Amin . Trickling of Urdu from schools to homes in Srinagar:A sociolinguistic study. Linguistics Today . Vol.6(1-2).pp.93-97 .

Kamal K Sridhar and Yamuna Kachru . Literacy,minority languages and multilingual India . Studies in the Linguistic Sciences:Literacy and writing system . Vol.30(1) pp.149-166 .

Kanaganayakam, Chelva . Indian writing in english: counterrealism as alternative literary history by Subha Rao. University of Toronto Quarterly . Vol. 69 (3),pp670 .

Kapil Kapoor . Reality and its representation: the verbal image in indian thought and Bhartrhari . Language Forum . Vol.26(1-2).

Karpagakumaravel,R and Manimekalai,M . Training technology for linguistic communication skills- a model . PILC Journal of Dravidic Studies . Vol.10(1).P.81-97 .

Khan,Iqtidar . Transformational grammar: A study of mental processes . Linguistics Today . Vol.6(1-2) pp.1-10 .

Khatoon,Rehana . Multilingual ethos in India . Linguistics Today . Vol.6(1-2) pp .85-92 .

Khokhlova,Ludmila. A historical syntax of late middle Indo-Aryan (Apabhramsha). South Asian Language Review . Vol.10(1 & 2) pp.149-155.

Khubchandani, Lachman M . English in Indian media . Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics . Vol.26, No.2 , pp.41-64 .

King,Robert D . Language education and Society By Bh.Krishnamurti. New Delhi:Sage Publication.The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000. pp.265-266 Klyukanov,Igor . Con/textualization . International Journal of Communication . Vol.10(1-2), pp.79-98 .

Krishnakumar . Neighbours language - language, education and culture By Tariq Rahman .Karachi:Oxford University Press,1999 . Economic and Political Weekly . Vol.35,August 26-September 2, .

Krishnamurti,BH . Regional reports:India : Dravidian The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000. pp.208-213 .

Lakshmanan, Usha . The acquisition of relative clauses by Tamil children. Journal of Child Language . Vol.27(3) pp.587-617.

Lakshmi Bai,B . Sounds and words in early language acquisition- a bilingual account . Indian Linguistics . Vol.61(1-4), pp.212 .

Lele,Jayant K . Nehru and the language politics of India By King,Robert D.New Delhi: Oxford University Press,1997 The yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics 2000 . P.262-264 .

Lindholdt,Paul J . Communication arts and advocacy in the American West: A profile of Erik Ryberg . International Journal of Communication . Vol.10(1-2) pp141-156 .

Littlebear, Richard . Just Speak Your Language. Whole Earth . Spring2000 Issue 100, p9, 2p, 2bw .

Madueno,Maria Dolores Fernandez de la Torre . The lexicographical treatment of metaphors: A cognitive experience in teaching . International Journal of Communication . Vol.10(1-2),pp.159-180 .

Mahalingam, K . What can go into the preparation of language instruction materials . IJDL . Vol.29(1) pp.121-124 .

Mahapatra,B P . The hypothesis of Dravidian sub-stratum for Magadhan languages . IJDL . Vol.29(1) pp.1-8 .

Malhotra,Simi . Of narrativising the self and obligation for the other . International Journal of Communication . Vol.10(1-2) pp13-25 .

Mallassery,S Radhakrisna . Language of Malavedas . Pulamai(Journal in Tamil) . Vol26(2) pp.93-106 .

Manetti, Giovanni . Origins and some developments of the notion of enunciation . Language Forum . Vol.26, No. 1-2.

Manickavasagom,M E . Encyclopaedia of humanities and social sciences. S.S.Sashi.NewDelhi:Anmol Publications(set of 50 vols.) 1992 . IJDL . Vol.29(1) pp.135-138 .

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