Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 2 : 6 September 2002

Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Associate Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.

Ph.D. Dissertation

A Contrastive Analysis of Hindi and Malayalam

V. Geethakumary, Ph.D.

© V. Geethakumary 2002. Ph.D. in Linguistics, Awarded by the University of Kerala, 1997. Guide: Dr.G.K.Panikkar. Click HOME PAGE of Language in India for the current issue articles. Click BACK ISSUES for previous issues.



4.1 Declarative sentences 4.1.1 Malayalam
4.1.2 Hindi 4.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
4.2 Interrogative sentences 4.2.1 Malayalam Yes/No Questions Wh-type questions Tag questoins 4.2.2 Hindi Yes/No Questions Wh-type questions Tag questions 4.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
4.3 Imperative sentences 4.3.1 Malayalam
4.3.2 Hindi 4.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
4.4 Exclamatory sentences 4.4.1 Malayalam
4.4.2 Hindi 4.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
4.5 Complex sentences 4.5.1 Malayalam Reportive or Qualitative Participal constructions
4.5.2 Hindi 4.5.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
4.6 Compound sentences 4.6.1 Malayalam
4.6.2 Hindi 4.6.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities

4.1. Declarative sentences
4.1.1. Malayalam
Declarative sentences in Malayalam are of two groups:- Nominal sentence and verbal sentence.
In Nominal sentence both subject and the predicate will be nouns.
e.g. atu ra:man
'That (is) Rama'
Equational type sentence is used for denoting innate quality, role or profession of the subject. It can also be used to denote the identity of the subject.

e.g. atu palaya pustakam
'That (is) old book;

In verbal sentence the predicate have either regular or irregular verbs or appellative form in its structure.
e.g. atu enRe pustakam a:N>.
'That is my book'
If the predicate of the sentence have appellative form /uNT> / indicates a sense of existence.
e.g. vi:Ttil ce:cci uNT>.
'Sister is there in the house'

4.1.2. Hindi

In Hindi nominal and verbal sentences which are subgroups of declarative sentence have the following structure.
In Nominal sentences both subject and predicate will be nouns.
e.g. yah ra:m

'This (is) Raman'
Equational sentences are used to denote the identity of the subject.
e.g. ya h pura:na pustak
'This (is) old book'
For the verbal sentence in Hindi, the predicate have an auxiliary verb.
e.g. (1) yah mera: bha:i: hæ :
Here 'hæ : ' is optional
(2) pita:ji: khar me hæ :
'Father is there in house'

4.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi declarative sentences are divided into nominal sentences and verbal sentences. There structure also shows similarity.

4.2. Interrogative sentences

Interrogative sentences can be divided into, Yes/No questions, Wh-type questions.

4.2.1. Malayalam Yes/No Questions

In Malayalam Yes or No type, that is the question needs only yes or no as answer, questions are formed by adding interrogative markers to thenoun, verb, adjective, adverb or sentence which forms the principal subject of interrogation. The marker is -o:. Negative verbs alla/illa 'no', ve:NTa 'don't want' and vayya 'cannot 'can take -e: or -o as interrogative suffix.
e.g. (1) avaL vanno:?
'Did she come? '
(2) ninnaLkku sukham a:No: ?
'are you in comfort?
(3) atu binduvinRe vi:T> alle: ?
'Is it not Bindu's house? '
(4) atu pustakam alle: ?
'Is it not a book? '
(5) ninnaLkku itu ve:NTe or veNTayo:
'you don't want this? '
(6) avarkku a: jo:li ceyya:n vayye or vayyayo ?
'can't they do that work? ' Wh-type Questions
In Malayalam wh-type questions are formed by using interrogative pronouns, adjectives or adverbs.
The interrogative pronoun 'a:r ' is used for human nouns.
e.g. itu a:ru paRannu ?
'Who said this? '
The adjectival interrogative used with non-human beings are e:t> 'which' ent> 'what', for showing quantity etra/ent> 'how many' or how much is used, and for showing thequantity of nouns etrape:r 'how many people' and for referring rank/ order etra matte 'which rank' and for collective nouns interrogative marker is in theform of interroative pronoun + ella:m / okke 'Intro.prn + all' are used in Malayalam.
(1) ninnalkku e:tu pustakam ve:N am ?
'which book do you want? '
(2) ii sa:rikku entu vila koTuttu?
'How much did you pay for this saree? '
(3) ninnaLkku etra pe:nayuNT>?
'How many pens do you have? '
(4) innale etra pe:r aviTe vannu?
'yesterday how many people came there? '
(5) vino:daya:traykk a:rokke/a:rellam po:kunnuNT>?
'whom all are going for the picnic? '
Interrogative adverbs giving temporal meaning is enn>/ eppoL 'when' enno:TT> /enn> 'in which direction' will show direction and 'eviTe' 'where' show location, the manner is indicated by the interrogative adverb ennane 'how' in Malayalam.
e.g. (1) avar ennu vannu?
'When did they come? '
(2) avaLkku eppo:L po:kaNam?
'when did she wants to go? '
(3) a: pustakam eviTe vaccu?
'Where did you keep the book? '
(4) ninnaLkku enno: TTu po:kaNam?
'In which direction do you want to go? '
(5) a: vaNTi enno:TTu po:yi?
'In which direction the cart went? '
(6) itu ennane uNTa:kki?
'How you made this? '
The interrogative pronouns can be used in exclamatory sentences also. Here the word 'ella:m' or 'okke' is added with the interrogative pronoun or the pronoun reduplicates.
e.g. (1) nammaL etra etra stalannaL kaNTu!
nammal etra ella:m stalannaL kaNTu !
'how many places we sae! '
(2) avaL entokke paRannu !
aval entella:m paRannu !
'What all things she said! ' Tag questions:

In Malayalam tag questions are formed by placing an interrogative suffix at the end of a declartive statement. In Yes/No question the speaker is expecting either a positive or negative answer from the hearer and he does not presuppose anything. But in tag questions the speaker wants only confirmation from the hearer tht what he told is correct and the speaker presupposes that the proposition is true. Generally, if the sentence is in the positive, the tag will be negative and vice versa. The negative tags are frequent in Malayalam.
e.g. (1) bindu aviTe illa. unto: ?
'Bindu is not there. Is she there? '
(2) atu pe:na aN>: alle?
'That is pen. Isn't it? '
(3) avarkku vi:T> uNT> ille:?
'They have house. Haven't they?
(4) bindu na:TTil po:yi. alle: or ille: ?
'Bindu went to her native place' Didn't she'?
(5) ninnaL I: pustakam va:yiccu, alle: or ille: ?
'you read (past) this book'. Don't you?

4.2.2. Hindi Yes/No Questions

In Hindi Yes/No answer giving questions are formed by adding the interrogative pronoun 'kya: ' at the beginning or end of the sentence. At the end of the sentence if 'kya: ' is added it will be preceded by the present auxiliary hæ:
e.g. (1) kya: vah a:yi: ?
vah a: yi: hæ: kya: ?
'Did she come'
(2) kya: a:p ja:nte?
a:p ja:nte hæ: kya: ?
'Do you know? ' Wh-type Questions

In Hindi wh-typ questions are formed by adding the interrogative pronoums, or adjectives.
Interrogative pronoun k>:n is used for human nouns.
e.g. 'yah k>: n kaha?
'Who said this? '
The adjectival interrogative is
kis 'which'
e.g. a:p ko kis pustak ca:hiye?
'Which book do you want? '
kya: 'what' is used for things and animals.
e.g. mej par kya: hæ:?
'What is there on the table?'
kitna:/kitni/kitne 'How much/How many? '
e.g. (1) a:p kitna kha:ye ge ?
'How much do you eat? '
(2) vaha kitne log a:ye?
'How many people came there? '
For collective nouns in Hindi the reduplicated form of interrogative pronouns are used.
e.g. a:p kya: kya: kari:dege?
'what all things you will purchase? '
vaha k>:n k>:n a: ye?
'Who all came there? '
The interrogative adverbs giving temporal meaning kab 'when', kaha: 'where and manner indicating kæ: se 'how' are also used to form interrogative sentences.
e.g. a:p kab a:ye ?
'When did you come? '
mi:ra kaha: gayi: ?
'Where did Meera go? '
tum yaha: kæ:se a:yi: ? '
'How did you come here? ' Tag Questions

The questions in Hindi are formed by placing an interrogative suffix at the end of a declarative statement. If the sentence is in positive, the tag will be negative and vice versa. For positive sentence the suffix 'hæ: na' 'isn't' is used and for negative sentence the suffix hæ: kya:? 'is it' is used at the end.
e.g. (1) yah kalam hæ: hæ: na ?
'This pen. isn't it?
(2) ra:m vaha: nahi: hæ: hæ: kya: ?
'Rama is not there. Do he?

4.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi Interrogative sentences are divided into yes/no questions, wh-type questions and tag questions.
In Malayalam yes/no questions the suffix -o: is suffixed to the finite verb form. Whereas in Hindi the Interrogative pronoun 'kya: ' is used in the beginning or end of the sentence.
e.g. M. avaL vanno: ?
H. kya: vah a:yi: ?
vah a:yi: hæ: kya: ?
'Did she come? '
In wh-type of questions both languages are adjectival interrogatives.
e.g. (1) M. aviTe a:ru vannu ?
H. vaha : k>:n a:ye?
'Who came there? '
(2) M. ninnaLkku e:tu pustakam ve:Nam ?
H. a:p ko kis pustak ca: hiye?
'Which book do you want? '
(3) M. ra:man> etra kuTTikaL uNT>?
H. ra:m ko kitne bacce hæ:?
'How many children Rama have? '
For collective nouns interrogative marker is in the form of Interrogative pronoun + ella:m/okke in Malayalam, whereas in Hindi this is conveyed by the reduplication of the interrogative pronouns.
e.g. M. vino:dya:traykku a:rokke/a:rella:m po:kunnu?
H. picnic par k>n k :n ja: yege?
'Whom all are going for the picnic? '
Interrogative adverbs denoting temporal meaning,
e.g. M. avar ennu vannu ?
H. ve kab a:ye ?
'When did they come? '
In Malayalam 'ennu' and 'eppo:L', are there for denoting the day and time respetively.
i.e. ennu is for 'Which day'?
eppo:L is for 'Which time'?
but in Hindi both meaning is conveyed by using kab 'when'.
e.g. M. avaLku eppo:L po:kaNam?
H. usko kab ja:na: hæ:?
'When did she wants to go? '
In Malayalam there are two adverbs eviTe 'when' and enno:TT> 'which direction' the former gives the meaning of place and latter direction. But in Hindi kahã: 'where' will give both meaning.
e.g. (1) M. a: pustakam evite vaccu?
H. vah pustak kahã: rakha: ?
'where did you keep the book ? '
(2) M. ninnaLkku enno:TTu po:kaNam?
H. a:p ko kahã: ja:na: hæ:'
'In which direction do you want to go? '
In exclamatory sentences also interrogative pronouns are used in both languages.
e.g. M. avaL entokke/entella:m paRaññu
H. usne kya: kya: bo:la: !
'what all things she said! '
Tag questions in Malayalam and Hindi are formed by adding an interrogative suffix at the end of declarative sentence. If the sentence is in positive the tag will be negative and vice versa.
e.g. M. itu pe:na a:Nu.alle:?
H. yah kalam hæ: h æ: na?
'This is pen. Isn't it?
M. ra:man aviTe illa. unto: ?
H. ra:m vaha: nahi: h æ: h æ : kya: ?
'Rama is not there. Do he has? '

4.3. Imperative Sentence

4.3.1. Malayalam

Imperative sentence showing request or command or order has the form., sub. + verb - Tr/Intr. (ibdi. 3.5.1.)
e.g. ni: po: 'you go'
ni: va: 'you come'
ninnaL varu: 'you (pl.) come'
In imperatives the subject may or may not be overtly expressed. The imperative form of the verb alone can convey the meaning.
e.g. po: 'you (sg.) go'
The imperative sentences giving permission.
e.g. (1) ini avaL po:kaTTe
'Let her go now'
(2) ini avaLkku po:ka:m
'Now she can go:
The negative imperative sentence is formed by adding 'arut> ' after the verb. 'ku:Ta' also will give the meaning of negative, it is added after the past tense form of the verb.
e.g. (1) aviTe ninnaL po:karut>
'you don't go there'
(2) ninnaL atu ceytu ku:Ta
'you don't do it'

4.3.2. Hindi

Hindi imperative sentences for request, command or order also have the form sub. + verb Tr/Intr. In Hindi the verb is in concord with subject. The subject need not be overtly expressed in imperative sentences.
e.g. (tu) ja: 'you go'
(tum) ja:o 'you (pl.) go'
(a:p) ja:ie 'you (hon.) go'
The meaning of permission is conveyed by the construction.
e.g. (1) use ja:ne do 'Let him go'
(2) a:p ja: sakte hæ: 'You (hon.) can go'
The negative imperative sentence is formed in Hindi by adding the negative marker 'mat' before the verb.
e.g. tu: mat ja: 'you don't go'
tum mat ja:o 'you (pl.) don't go'
a:p mat ja:ie 'you (hon.) don't go'

4.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities


Imperative sentences in both Malayalam and Hindi show request, command or permission.
e.g. M. ni: po:
H. tu: ja: 'you go'
M. ninnaL po:kin
H. (tum) ja:o 'you (pl.) go'
M. ta:nkaL pokin
H. (a:p) ja:ie 'you (hon.) go'
Impertive sentences showing permission.
e.g. (1) M. avan po:kaTTe
H. use ja:ne do
'Let him go'
(2) M. avaLkku po:ka:m
H. vah ja: sakti: hæ:
'She can go'
Negative imperative sentences in Malayalam are formed by adding 'arut>' after the verb stem or by adding 'ku:Ta' after the pastform of the verb. In Hindi 'mat' is added before the verb.
e.g. M. ni: po:karut>
H. tu: mat ja: 'you don't go'
M. ninnaL pokarut>
H. tum mat ja:o 'you don't go'
M. ta:nkaL vararut>
H. a:p mat a:ie 'you (hon.) don't come.

4.4. Exclamatory sentences

4.4.1 Malayalam

Exclamatory sentences in Malayalam are formed by adding the interrogative pronoun 'etra'.
e.g. etra valiya vi:T>!
'How big the house is! '

3.4.2. Hindi

In Hindi exclamatory sentences are formed by adding the interrogative pronoun 'kitne'.
e.g. kitne sundar phu:l !
'What a beautiful flower! '

4.4.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi exclamatory sentences are formed by adding interrogative pronouns.
e.g. M. etra valiya vi:T> !
H. kitna: bara: ghar!
'What a big house'

4.5. Complex sentence

4.5.1 Malayalam

Two types of subordinate constructions in Malayalam are:
(i) Reportive or quotative and (ii) Participial construction. Reportive or Quotative

These constructions are used to report texts of speech, events, perceptions etc. It refers to situational implications and also connects actions, states and causations etc. of one clause with those of the other. In Malayalam the morpheme 'ennu' is used as reportive morpheme.
e.g. avar varum ennu amma paRaññu
'Mother said that they will come'
In Malayalam the sociative case marker -o: Tu occurs when the verb paRay 'to say' is used.
e.g. avar varum ennu avaLo:T> amma paRaññu
'Mother said to her that they will come'
Quotative morpheme expresses one's own thoughts, things which one happens to see, hear or wish for also.
e.g. (1) avaL varilla ennu vica:riccu
'I /we/he/she/it thought that she won't come'
(2) ninnalkku jo:li kiTTi ennu ke:TTallo:
'I /we/he/she/it heard that you got job'
In Malayalam the quotative form has the usage ennu paRaññu 'having said that' ennu vica:riccu 'having thought that' also.
e.g. (1) avadhi po:ra ennu paRaññu
vidya:rthikaL samaram ceytu
'The students went on strike saying
that the holidays are not enough'
(2) avar varum ennu vica:riccu avaL aviTe ninnu
'She stood there thinking that they will come'
The quotative morpheme quotes onomatopoeic words also.
E,g, (1) Tho: ennu poTTi
'Broken with a noise tho: '
(2) Tap ennu aTaññu
'Closed with a sound tap'
The quotative morpheme in Malayalam has the relative participle form enna 'called' also.
e.g. (1) ayo:ddhya enna sthalam
'Place called Ayodhya'
(2) kocci enna nagaram
'The city called Cochin' Participial constructions

In participial subordination the clause ending in a nonfinite verb (subordinate clause) is followed by a main clause ending in a finite verb.
Verbal participles.
The markers are,
(a) Past - f (ittu) -
e.g. aval paRaññittu po:yi
'She went after saying'
avaR naTannittu vannu
'They came after walking'
(b) Present continuous - koNTu -
e.g. avaL pa:TikoNTu vannu
'she came singing'
avan karaññukoNTu po:yi
'He went crying'
(c) Negative -aat-e.
e.g. ra:ji paRaya:te vannu
'Raji came without saying'
Conditional verbal participle
The conditional subordinate clauses available in Malayalam are:
e.g. (1) ña:n cenna:l avaL varum
'If I reach (go) she will come'
(2) adhaya:pakan paRañña:l kuTTikaL ke:Lkkum
'If the teacher says students will obey'
These sentences can also change as follows;
1. b ña:n cennu/cellum enkil avaL varum
b adhya:pakan paRaññu/paRayum enkil kuTTikaL ke:Lkkum
In Malayalam -a:l occurs with the past base and 'enkil' occurs with both past and non-past bases.
Adjectival subordination where a relative clause is subordinated to the main verb.
e.g. innale vanna kuTTikaL enRe sahapa:ThikaL a:N>
'Those students who came yesterday are my classmates'
ña:n ceyya:tta kaNakk> avaL ceytu
'She did the problem which I did not do'
Adverbal clauses are subordinated as:
e.g. (1) mo:han viLiccappo:L kuTTi karaññu
'the child cried when Mohan called'
(2) ninnaL jo:li ceyyunna(tu) vare ña:n varilla
'I won't come till you finish the wrok'
(3) ninnaL iviTe vanna še:sam entokke eluti?
'What are all you wrote after coming here? '
(4) ña:n vannatukoNTu avaL uRanniyilla
'She didn't sleep because of my coming'

4.5.2. Hindi


Complex sentence patterns are more in Hindi than in Malayalam. By introducing a subordinator the main or independent clause in Hindi can be transformed into a dependent or sub-clause and by deleting the subordinator the dependent clause becomes an independent clause.
The calss of subordinators in Hindi consists of relative words (relative pronouns, relative adjectives and relative adverbs) and conjuctions added at the beginning of the clauses.
(A) Constructions with relative pronouns and adjectives
(a) jo. . . . . vah
(1) jo pustak tum parhte ho, vah acchi: hæ:
'The book which you are reading is good'
(2) jo larki: a:yi vah meri: bahin hæ:
'The girl who came here was my sister'
(3) jise tum gari:b samajhte ho,
vah utna: gari:b nahi : hæ:
'Whom you consider as poor is not so poor'
(4) Jis se mæ : khel raha: tha: vah mera dost tha:
'with whom I was playing was my friend'
(b) jo. . . . . . ve
(5) jo acchi: tarah parhte ve pa:s hoge
'Those who study well will pass'
(6) jo larke kal a:ye ve mere dost the
'The boys who had come yesterday were my friends'
(7) jinko mæ: ne bula:ya: tha: ve sab a:gaye.
'Those whom I had invited all of them had already came.'
(c) jo koi: . . . . vah 'who ever, whichever . . . . that
(8) jo koi: ta:jamahal dekhta: hæ:
vah sa:jaha:n ko sara:hta: hæ :
'Who ever seen Tajamahal admires Shajahan'
(9) ca: he jis kisi: se pu:cho, vah yahi: kahega:
'Ask anyone you want, he will tell only this'
(d) jo kuch . . . . . vah 'whatever . . . it'
(10) jo kuch tum ca:ho vah lo.
'whatever you want take it'
(11) jo kuch tum khari:do, (vah) dekh kar khari:do
'whatever you buy, look and buy'
(e) jo kuch bhi: ho . . . . . 'whatever be'
(12) jo kuch bhi: ho mæ: nahi: ja:u:gi:
'whatever be I won.t go'
(13) jo kuch bhi: ho kal a:p zaru:r a:na:
'whatever be you will have to come tomorrow'
(f) jo jo . . . . . ve (sab) 'who all'
(14) jo jo ba:har ja:te hæ:, ve sab bata: kar ja:na :
'All those who are going outside will have to tell and go'
(15) a:p jo jo ca:hthe hæ:, ve yah : khari:d sakte hæ:
'Whatsoever you want you can uy from here'
(g) jitna. . . . .. utna : 'how much/many …… that much'
(16) vah jitan: ca:hta: hæ: utna: mæ: nahi: de sakti:
' I cannot give as much he wants'
(17) jitna : bhi:r yaha: hota: hæ: utna: vaha: nahi:
'This much rush is not visible there'
(h) jæ:sa: … væ:sa: 'what kind of …. That kind of '
(18) jæ:sa: phul a:p cahte hæ: væ: sa: yaha: nahi: hæ:
'what kind of flower you want is not available here'
B. Modifying constructions (constructions with relatie advrbs)
a) jab . . . . . tab 'what . . . . then'
1) jab su:raj nikalta: hæ: tab praka:s phælti: hæ:
'when sun rises, light spreads'
2) jab tum ja:na: ca:the ho,
'when you want to go then go'
b) jaha: . . . . . vaha: 'where . . . . .there'
3) jaha: tumhe madad milegi:, vaha: ja:o
'Go where you will get help'
4) jaha: per hota: hæ : vaha: ciriya: bhi: hoti: hæ :
'where trees are seen there birds are also inhabit'
c) jidhar .. . . . .. udhar 'where ….. there'
5) jidhar ja:ta: hæ : udhar bhi:r hi: bhi:r hota: hæ:
'where ever going only rush is there'
6) jidhar ja:na ca:hti: hæ: udhar ja:na:
'where you want to go there you go'
d) jitna: ….. utna: 'how much ….. that much'

7) a:p jitna: kha:te hæ: utna: mæ: nahi:
'How much you are eating that much I can't'
8) tum jitna: kam bologe utna: accha: hoga:
'The less you speak, the bette'
e) jæ:sa: …. væ:sa: how …. is that way
(shows quality of work)
9) jæ:sa: lata: likhti: hæ: væsa: > r koi: nahi: likhti:
'Nobody else writes as Latha writes'
f) jæ:se. . . . væ:se Vhow ….. is that way'
(shows manner of doing)
10) vah jæ:se karega: væ:se tum bhi: karo:
'How he will do, like you also do'
11) jæ:se tum likhe væ:se mæ: bhi: likhi:
Vhow you wrote in the same way I also wrote'
g) jaha . . . .. (vaha) 'while', 'if'
12) jaha: tulsida:s dha:rmik a:ca:ro ko ma:nne va:le the,
(vaha) kabi:rda:s inke virodhi: the
' While Tulasidas was one who respected religious
customs, kabirdas was one against them'.
h) jaha : kahi: . . .. 'wherever'
13) kerala mæ jaha: kahi: a:p dekhege a:p ko na:riyal ka
per hi: dikha:yi: parega:
'Wherever you look in Kerala you will see only coconut trees'
14) jaha: kahi: bhi: mile, mæ:yah pustak le a:ugi:
'I will bring this book if it is available anywhere'
b) jaha: jaha:….. vaha: 'where ever….. at all positions'
15) jaha: jaha: log rathe hæ: vaha : mandir bhi: hote hæ:
'whereverr people live there temples are also there'
i) jab kabhi: ….. tab wherever ….. at that time'
a) e.g.
16) jab kabhi: a:p pustaka:lay ja: ve,
(tab) mere liye yah pustak le a:yiye
'whenever you got o library, please get this book for me'
17) job kabhi: tum haya: a:o, tab hama:re ghar me raho
'whenever you come here, stay in our house'
b) jab jab . .. . . . .. (tab) 'whenver …….. at all times'
18) jab jab a:p bolte hæ: (tab) æ:sa: hi: bolte hæ:
'whenever you are speaking, you are speaking like this'
j) jyo hi: . . . . tyo hi 'as soon as'
19) jyo hi: vah yaha: pahucega: tyo hi: ham nikalege
'As soon as he reaches here we will start'
k) jyo jyo …… tyo tyo
20) jyo jyo ham uca:yi: par ja:te the,
tyo tyo sardi:bhi: barti: ja:ti: thi:
'As we went up, the cold was also increasing'
Subordinate construtions (Constructions with subordinating conjunctions)
The subordinating conjunctions in Hindi are agar, yadi, jo 'if', yadyapi…… to bhi: 'though….. then also, ' cu: ki . . . . . isliye 'therefore' ki 'that', ki/ta:ki 'so that', kyo ki 'because', ha:la:ki 'although'. Examples for each are given below.
1) agar/yadi/jo/'if
e.g. (1) agar/yadi/jo/ a:p vaha: ja:na ca:the hæ:
' If you want to go there go in this bus'
2) yadyapi … to bhi: 'though…. then also'
eg. 2) yadyapi usne acchi: tarah parha to bhi: pa:s nahai: hui:
Though she studed well, she did not pass.
3) cu:ki…… isliye 'therefore'
e.g. (3) cu:ki is a sa:l pa:ni: khu:b barsa: islye pa:ni: ka kami: nahi: hoge,
' since it has rained well, there maynot be any difficulty for water.
a) ki 'that'
e.g. (4) mæ: ne soca: ki tum vaha: nahi: hoge
'I thought that you will not be there'
5) ki/ta:ki 'so that'
e.g. (5) mæ: subah hi: a:ya: ki/ta:ki a:p se zaru:r milu:
I came early morning so that I can/may surely meet you'
(6) kyo ki 'because'
e.g.. (6) mæ: der se a:yi: kyo ki muche ga:ri: nahi: mili.
I came late because I counln't get the bus'
(7) ha: laki 'although'
e.g. (7) mæ: ne uski: madad ki:, ha:la:ki usne madad nahi: ma:gi: thi:
'Though she did not ask helped her.

4.5.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam the morpheme 'ennu' is used as reportative morphme. There are participial constructions also in Malayalam. The subordinating conjunctions in Hindi are agar/yadi/jo 'if' yadyapi…. to bhi: 'though …. then also, cu:ki ….. isliye 'therefore' ki 'that', ki/ta:ki 'so that' kyo ki 'because' ha:la:ki 'although'. Examples from each language are given below:
M: ennu H: ki 'that'
1) M; avar varum ennu ammma paRannu
H: ma: ne kaha: ki ve a: yege
'Mother said that they will come'
2) M: ninnaL aviTe ka:Num ennu na:n vica:riccu
H: mæ ne soca: ki tum vaha: hoge
' I thought that they will have there'
sentences with sub-clauses introduced, conjunctives are almost parallel in both Malayalam and Hindi.
M. ninnaL paRa:nna:1 na:n ceyyum
H. tum kaho to mæ: karu:gi:
'I shall do if you say'
Adjectival subordination
This type of subordination is quite common in Hindi but are rarely used in Malayalam. Examples for equivalent forms of Malayalam are as follows:
M: a: ro::…………..avar H: jo…..vah 'who… they
1) M. a:ru pravartti ceyyunnuvo: avarkku phalam kiTTum
H: jo: ka:m karta: hæ: vah phal pa:yega:
'He who does work will get the results'
2) M: a:ru innale vanno: avar enRe ku:TTuka:r a:Nu
H: jo kal a:ye ve mere dost the
'those who came yesterday were my friends'
3) M: e:tu pustakam ninnalkku ve:Namo: atu eTuttu koLLu
H: jo pustak a:p ca: hiye use lo
'which book you want take it'.
4) M: a:reyella:m na:n viLico: avarella:m vannu
H: jinko mæ ne bula:ya: tha: ve sab a: gaye
'Those whom I had invited all had come'.
5) M: entu tanne a:ya:lum na:n na:Le varum
H: jo kuch bhi: ho mæ :kal a:u:gi:
'whatever be, I will come tomorrow'
6) M: ninnaLkku etra ve:Namo: atrayum eTuttukoLLu:
H: jitna: tum ca:ho utna: lo
'How much you want take that much'
7) M: a:rella:m ta:j mahal ka:Nunnuvo: avarellam
a:scarya cakitara:kunnu.
H: jo jo ta:jmahal dekhte hæ , ve sab dang rah ja:te hæ
'All those who see Taj mahal are wonder struck'.
In Malayalam plurality is shown by adding 'ella:m' and not by reduplication of pronouns.
8) M: ennane ji:vikkaNamo: annane ji:vikku:
H: jæsa: tum ji:na: ca:hti; hæ: væsa: jiyo
'How you want to live, live in that way'

Constructions with relative advers
M: appo:L H: jab…. tab
1) e.g. M: adhya:pakan vannappo:L kuTTikaL elunneRRu
H: jab adhya:pak a:ye tab larke khare hue.
'when the teacher came, the boys stood up'
M: eviTe…. aviTe H: jah … vah :
M: ninnaL eviTe po:kunnuvo: aviTe avaLum varum.
H: jaha: tum ja:te h æ: vaha: vah bhi: a:yegi:
'wherever you are going she also will come'
M: etra . . . . atra H: jitna: . . . utna:
3) M: ninnaL etra kalikkunnuvo: atrayum na:n kalikkilla
H: jitna: tum kha:te ho, utna: mæ: nahi:
'How much you are eating, that much I can't
M: atupo:le H: j æ sa ….. v æ sa:
4) M: lata pa:Tunnatupo:le ve:Re a:rum pa:Tuka illa
H: jæsa: lata: ga:ti hæ væ:sa: a>r koi: nahi gati:
'Nobody else sings as Latha sings'
M: ennane…. annane H: jæ se…. væ :se
5) M: ninnaL ennane vanno: annane na:num vannu
H: jæse tum a:ye væse mæ: bhi : a:yi:
'just as you came, I also came'
6) M: eviTe … aviTeyokke H: jaha: kahi:
e.g. M: eviTe po:ya:lum aviTeyokke ninnaLkku
kasTappa:TukaL ne:riTe:NTi varum
H: jaha: kahi: tum ja:oge, tumhe takli:f utha:ni: paregi:
'Wherever you go you will have to endure sufferings'
(7) M: eppo:L. . . appo:L H: jab kabhi: . . . . (tab)
M: eppo:lokke ninnaL iviTe varunnuvo: appo:lokke
nammuTe vi:TTil ta:masikku:
H: jab kabhi: tum yaha: a:oge, tab hama:re ghar me raho.
'whenever you come herestay in our house'
8) M: eppo:lokke ninnaL samsa:rikkunnuvo:
appolokke innane tanne samsa:rikkunnu
H: jab jab tum bolte ho (tab) æ:sa : hi: bolte ho:
'Whenver you sepak, you sepak like this'
9) M: eppo:L . . . appo:L H: jyohi…. tyo hi:
M eppo:L avan iviTe varumo: appo:L
nammaL iviTe ninnum po:kum
avan vannayuTane nammal iviTe ninnum po:kum
H: jyo hi: vah yaha: pahucega; tyo hi: ham nikalege.
'As soon as he reaches here we will start'
10) M: nammaL paThikkum to:Rum nammuTe buddhi
H: jyo jyo ham parhte ja:yege, tyo tyo hama:ri:buddhi
barhti: ja: yegi:
'The more we go on learning, the more our intellect
will be growing'
Constrution with subordinating Conjunctions
In Malayalam the morpheme 'ennu' is used as reportative morphem. There are participial constructions also in Malayalam. The subordinating conjunctions in Hindi are agar/yadi/jo/ f… to… 'if', yadypa…. To bhi: 'though, although' cu:ki…. Isliye 'therefore' ki 'that' ki ta:ki 'so that' kyo ki 'because' ha:la:ki 'although', examples are given below.

1) M: -a:l H: agar/yadi/jo/o… to 'if'
e.g. M: nammaL ella:varum ce:rnnu parišramicca:l
namukku uyarcca varum
H: agar./yadi/jo./ f ham sab mil kar košis
kare to hama:ri unnati: hogi:
'if we all try together, we will progress '
2) M: v + enikilum H: yadyapi … to bhi:
'though, although'
M: avan iviTe vane enkilum enne kaNTilla
H: yadyapi vah yaha: a:ya: tha: to bhi: mujh se nahi: mila:
'Though he had come here, he did not meet me'
3) M: atina:l H: cu:ki:…..isliye
M: na:n ne:ratte iRanni atina:l bassu kiTTi
H: cu:ki mæ: pahale a:yi: isliye ga:Ti mili:
'I left early therefore I got the bus'
(4) M: ennu
M: ninnaL aviTe po:kum ennu na:n vica:riccu
H: mæ: ne soca: ki tum vaha: ja:oge
'I thought that you would go there'
In Malayalam and Hindi the order of clauses are different
(5) M: entenn:al H: kyo ki 'because'
M: avanu vaNTi kiTTiyilla, entenna:l avan ta:masiccupo:yi
avan ta:masiccu po:yatina:l vaNTi kiTTiyilla (common)
H: use ga:ri: nahi: mili: kyo ki vah der se gaya:
'He did not get the train because he was late'

(6) M: Adv. Participle + -um (ku:Te)
H: ha:la:ki 'although'
M: avan iviTe vanniTTum ku:Te na:n avane kaNTilla
H: ha:la:ki vah yaha: a: ya: tha: mæ: ne use nahi: dekha:
'Thought he had come here, I did not see him'

4.6. Compound sentence

4.6.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam each basic sentence may be considered as consisting of a noun phrase (NP) followed by a verb phrase (VP). Thus NP co-ordination and VP coordination is possible in Malayalam. 'A co-ordinate sentence is a construction in consisting of two or more members which are equialent in grammatical function, and bound together at the same level of structural hierarchy by a conjunctive. ' The conjunctives are bound forms suffixed successively to all the units that are to be co-ordinated.
(i) The conjunctive marker in Malayalam is -um.
The sentence lata vannu 'Latha came'
bindu vannu 'Bindu came'
Can be correlated as
1) latayum binduvum vannu
'Ltha and Bindu came'
2) achanum ammayum kaTayil po:yi
'mother and father went to shop'
In Malayalam for conjoing the predicate verbals in two sentences with identical subjects it is possible to delete the subject in the second sentence and to add -uka + um with each of the verbal bases. An action verb cey - also occur obligatorily after the coordinated verbal predicate.
e.g. The two sentences
(a) avaL elutt> eluti
'She wrote letter'
(b) avaL pa:TTu ke:TTu
'she heard song' can be coordinated as'

avaL elutt> elutukayum pa:TTu ke:Lkkukayum ceytu
'She wrote the letter and heard the song'.
If ku:ti 'also' is added,
lata palam tinnu ra:ji do: šayum ku:Ti
'Latha ate fruit and ra:ji ate fruit and doš a'.
Here the meaning will differ if we add ku:Ti 'also'
The 'ku:Ti' can give the meaning 'even' in the sentence.
aviTe avaLum ku:Ti po:yi
'even she also went there'
In Malayalam to indicate 'respectively' - the construction pattern is as follows:
mohananum ra:juvinum yatha:kramam raNDum mu:nnum ma:rkkukaL vi:tam kiTTi
'Mohan and Raju got two and three marks respectively'.
(2) Co-ordination - Disjunctive
The disjunctive marker in Malayalam is -o:-
e.g. (1) malaya;lamo:, hindiyo: va:yikkuu.
'you read Malayalam or Hindi'
(2) latayo : ra:jiyo:pokaTTe
'Let Latha or Raji go'
The indefinite disjunctive -o: coordinates VP also.
e.g. (1) ra:ji va:yikkukayo: samsa:rikkukayo: ceyyunnu
'Raji is reading orspeaking'
(2) avaL o:Tukayo: ca:Tukayo: ceyyaTTe
'Let her run or jump'
Interrogatie pronoun can also be introduced in these sentenes.
e.g. malaya:lamo: hindiyo: e:tenkilum va:yikkaTTe
'Let her read either Malayalam or Hindi'
In Malayalam the discountinous disjunctive is onnukil . . . allenkil.
e.g. on:ukil am:a varum allerikil acchan varum.
Either mother will come or father will'
pakse: , enna:l, enniTTum 'but' atina:l, atukontu 'therefore', atinuse:sam 'afterwards' and appo:L 'then' will co-ordinate two sentences.
e.g. (1) avaL neratte iRanni (pakse:) basu
(enna:l )
'she came early but she didn't get the bus'
2) na:n a:ha:ram kaliccu (atina:l) visakkunnilla
'I ate food therefore I am not feeling hungre'
3) avaL ra:vile kuLiccu atinu se:sam ambalattil po:yi.
'She took bath in the morning afterward went to emple'
4) amma viLiccu appo:L na:n uNarnnu
'mother called then I woke up'

4.6.2. Hindi

The compounding in Hindi is possible by using conjunctives, disjunctives, relative pronouns and relative adverbs.
1) conjunctives and disjunctives
e.g. (1) rema:ga:ti: hæ:
(2) lata:ga:ti: hæ:
The sentences (1) and (2) can be joined as
(3) rama: >r lata: ga:ti: hæ:
(4) is skul me larke >:r larkiya: parthe hæ :
'In this school boys and girls are studying'
2) The disjunctive marker is ya:/athava:/va: 'or'
e.g. (5) lata: ya: ra:ji : yaha: nahi: a : yi:
Latha or Raji did not come here'
(6) a:p kofi: pi:yege ya:ca:y ?
'you will drink coffee or Tea?

(7) tum khud parho ya: much se pu:ho
'you study yourself or ask me'
3) ki 'or'
e.g. (8) tumha:ri ga:v chota: hæ: ki bra:
'Your village is small or big'
(9) tum ja:ta; hæ: ki nahi:
'are you going or not'
(10) vah sac bolta: hæ: ki jhu:Th.
'Does he tell thetruth or lie'
4) ya: to . . . ya: 'either …. or'
(11) e.g. ya:to tum a:o ya: apni : bahin ko bhejo.
'Either you come or send your sister'
(12) kla:s me a:te samay, ya:to kalam la:o ya: pensil.
'When coming to the class, bring either pen or pensil.
5) na (to) …. Na 'neither …. nor'
13) yaha: na (to) kalam ha: na pencil
'There is neither pen nor pencil here'
14) ve na (to) mera: ma:ma: hæ: na ca:ca:
'He is neither my uncle nor my paternal uncle'
6) hi: nahi . . . . . (balki/varan)
15) ra:ji: ga:ti: hi: nahi: vi:na: bhi: baja:ti: hæ: 'Raji not only sings but also plays veena'
16) asok ne buddh dharm svi:krt hi: nahi: kiya:
balki/varan des vides me uska: pracha:r bhi: kiya:
'Ashoka not only embraced Budhdhim, but also propagated it in
the country and foreign countries. '
7) nahi: to / anatha: 'if not, otherwise'
17) bha:rat ke ra:ja: ek du:sare se larte the, nahi: to/ anyatha: bha:rat ka:
itiha:s hi: bhinn hota:
'The kings of India were fighting with each other;
otherwise India's history would have been different'
Relative pronouns and Relative adverbs:
In Hindi reltie pronous and Relative adverbs can be used as coordinators, when they are not followed by correlatives. The examples are given below:
1) jo (ki) 'and that/which'
e.g. (1) tum hamesa: accha ka:m karo:, jo tumha:ri
unnati keliye accha: hæ:
'you always do good things, which is good for your progress'
(2) sri buddh ne kai: ga:vo me gaye, jis se unhe
sa:ma:nya jano ki: dasa: ma:lu:m ho gayi:
'Sri Budh went to many villages, by which he came to know
the condition of the common people.
4.6.3 Similarities and dissimilarities
Compared to Hindi, compound sentence patterning are less in Malayalam. Compound sentences are formed by combining two or more main clauses by conjutives or disjunctives or relative pronouns or relatie adverbs.

The conjunctive marker in Malayalam is -um and in Hindi >:r/va/tatha:/evam of these ' >:r' is commonly used in Hindi.
e.g. M: lata pa:Tukayum ra:ji nrutam ceyyukayum ceyyunnu
H: lata: ga:ti: hæ: ra: ji: na:cti: hæ:
'Latha is singing and Raji is dancing'

In Malayalam for conjoining the predicates of two sentences with identical subjects, it is possible todelete the subject in thesecond sentence and to add -uka+yum with each oftheverbal bases. An action verb cey -also occurs obligatory after the co-ordinated verbal predicate. In Hindi : r is used here also.
e.g. The two sentenes.
(a) M. avaL elutt> eluti :
H. vah ciTThi: likhi:
(b) M. avaL pa:TTu ke:TTu
H. vah gi:t suni:
(a) and (b) can be joined as,
(c) M. avaL eluttelutukayum pa:TTu ke:Lkkukayum ceytu.
H. vah ciTThi: likhi: >r: gi:t suni:
2) The disjunctive marker
M. -o.: 'or' H. ya:/athava:/va: 'or'
e.g. M. oru pe:nayo: pensilo : taru:
H. ek kalam ya pensil di:jiye.
'please gie me pen or a pensil'
3) M. innu vaikiTTu na:n inite varukayo:
sinimaykku povukayo: ceyyum:
H. a:j sa:m ko mæ: yaha: a:u:gi: ya: sinima: ja:vu:gi:
'Today evening, I will come here or go to the cinema'.

(2) Marker Mal. -o:. H ki. 'or'
e.g. (1)
M. itu pa:lo: veLLamo: ?
H. yah du:dh hæ: ki pa:ni:
'Is this milk or water? '
In Malayalam the marker -o: has the meaning 'or' also.
e.g. (2) M. ninnaL po:kunnuvo: illayo:?
H. tum ja:ti: hæ: ki nahi:
'whether you are going or not? '
3) The marker -oo in Malayalam also convey the meaning either … or. In Hindi the marker is ya:to … ya: 'either or'.
e.g. (1) M. ninnal varukayo: ninnaLuTe saho:dariye
ayaykkukayo: ceyyaNam
onnukil ninnaL varu: allenkil saho:dariye ayaykku:
H. ya:to tum a:o ya: apne bahan ko bhejo
'Either you come or send your sister'

(2) M. na:n aviTe po:kukayo: iviTe varukayo: ceytilla.
H. mæ: na to vaha: gayi: na yaha:
'I neither went there nor here'
4) Marker Mal. ma:tramalla… um 'not only but also'
H. hi:nahi:.. (balki/varan) 'not only but also'
(1) M. lata pa:Tuka mæ:tramalla vi:Na
va: yikkukayum ceyyum.
H. lata ga:ti: hi: nahi: vi:na: bhi:
baja:ti: hæ:
' Lata not only sings but also plays veena'
(5) M. allenkil 'otherwise' H. nahi: to/anyatha: 'otherwise'
M. valiyilvaccu na:n enRe ku:TTuka:riye kaNTu allenkil
enikku avaLuTe vi:Tu kaNTupiTikka:n kaliyilla:yirunnu.
H. ra:ste me mæ: meri: dost se mill: nahi: to muche uska:
ghar ma: lu: nahi: ho pa:ta:
'I met my frined on the way or otherwise I cannot loate her house'
With Relative pronouns and Relative adverbs
In Malayalam unlike Hindi, co-ordinative construction using co-ordinators like relative pronouns and adverbs are absent. The idea is expressed in Malayalam in two sentences.
(1) M. jo(ki) 'and that/which'
H. tum hameša: dusaroki: bura:i: karte ho,
jo tumhari: unnati keliye accha: nahi: hæ:
M. ninnaL eppo:lum maRRuLLvarkku tinma ceyyunnu,
atu ninnaLuTe unnatiykku nallatalla.
'you always despise others, which is not good for your progress. '

(2) H. jaha: 'and there./where'
H. ga:ndhi: london gaye, jaha : unhone ka:nu:n si:kha:
M ga:ndhiji laNTanil po:yi, aviTe avar niyam paThiccu
'Gandhiji went to london, where he studied law.
(3) H. jab ki 'at that time'
H. na:v nadi: pa:r kar rahi: thi:,
jab (ki) ek bari: a:ndhi: a:yi:
M. vaLLam nadi kaTakkukaya:yirunnu,
appo:L oru valiya ka:RRu vannu.
'The boat was crossing the river, when a big storm came. '

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