LANGUAGE IN INDIA

Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow

Volume 2 : 6 September 2002

Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D.
Associate Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D.
Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D.
B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.

Ph.D. Dissertation

A Contrastive Analysis of Hindi and Malayalam

V. Geethakumary, Ph.D.


V. Geethakumary 2002. E-mail:geethakumary@hotmail.com Ph.D. in Linguistics, Awarded by the University of Kerala, 1997. Guide: Dr.G.K.Panikkar. Click HOME PAGE of Language in India for the current issue articles. Click BACK ISSUES for previous issues.

CHAPTER III

MORPHOLOGY

3.1 Noun 3.1.1 Gender
3.1.1.1 Malayalam 3.1.1.2 Hindi
3.1.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.1.2 Number
3.1.2.1 Malayalam 3.1.2.2 Hindi
3.1.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.1.3 Case
3.1.3.1 Malayalam 3.1.3.2 Hindi
3.1.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.1.4 Derived Nouns
3.1.4.1 Malayalam 3.1.4.2 Hindi
3.1.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.2. Pronoun
3.2.1 Personal pronouns 3.2.1.1 Malayalam
3.2.1.2 Hindi 3.2.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.2.2 Reflexive pronouns 3.2.2.1 Malayalam
3.2.2.2 Hindi 3.2.2.3 Similarities and dissimilarities
3.2.3 Interrogative pronouns 3.2.3.1 Malayalam
3.2.3.2 Hindi 3.2.3.3 Similarities and dissimilarities
3.2.4. Indefinite pronouns 3.2.4.1 Malayalam
3.2.4.2 Hindi 3.2.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.3 Adjectives 3.3.1 Inherent adjectives
3.3.1.1 Malayalam 3.3.1.2 Hindi
3.3.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.2 Derived adjectives
3.3.2.1 Malayalam 3.3.2.2 Hindi
3.3.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.3 Interrogative adjectives
3.3.3.1 Malayalam 3.3.3.2 Hindi
3.3.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.4 Demonstrative adjectives
3.3.4.1 Malayalam 3.3.4.2 Hindi
3.3.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.5 Indefinite adjectives
3.3.5.1 Malayalam 3.3.5.2 Hindi
3.3.5.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.6 Determinative adjectives
3.3.6.1 Malayalam 3.3.6.2 Hindi
3.3.6.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.7 Separative adjectives
3.3.7.1 Malayalam 3.3.7.2 Hindi
3.3.7.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.3.8 Distributive adjectives
3.3.8.1 Malayalam 3.3.8.2 Hindi
3.3.8.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.4 Numerals
3.4.1. Cardinals 3.4.1.1 Malayalam
3.4.1.2 Hindi 3.4.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5 Verb 3.5.1 Imperatives
3.5.1.1 Affirmative imperatives 3.5.1.1.1 Direct imperatives
3.5.1.1.1.1 Malayalam 3.5.1.1.1.2 Hindi
3.5.1.1.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.1.1.2 Indirect imperatives
3.5.1.1.2.1 Malayalam 3.5.1.1.2.2 Hindi
3.5.1.1.2.3 Similarities and dissimilarities 3.5.1.2 Negative imperatives or prohibitives
3.5.1.2.1 Malayalam 3.5.1.2.2 Hindi
3 .5.1.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.2 Tenses
3.5.2.1 Present tense 3.5.2.1.1 Malayalam
3.5.2.1.2 Hindi 3.5.2.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.2.2. Past tense 3.5.2.2.1 Malayalam
3.5.2.2.2 Hindi 3.5.2.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.2.3 Future tense 3.5.2.3.1 Malayalam
3.5.2.3.2 Hindi 3.5.2.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.3 Finite verbs 3.5.3.1 Malayalam
3.5.3.2 Hindi 3.5.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.4. Nonfinite verbs 3.5.4.1. Infinitive (purposive)
3.5.4.1.1 Malayalam 3.5.4.1.2 Hindi
3.5.4.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.4.2 Verbal participle1
3.5.4.2.1 Malayalam 3.5.4.2.2 Hindi
3.5.4.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.4.3 Verbal participle2
3.5.4.3.1 Malayalam 3.5.4.3.2 Hindi
3.5.4.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.4.4 Conditional participle
3.5.4.4.1 Malayalam 3.5.4.4.2 Hindi
3.5.4.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.4.5 Concessive participle
3.5.4.5.1 Malayalam 3.5.4.5.2 Hindi
3.5.4.5.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.4.6 Relative participle
3.5.4.6.1 Malayalam 3.5.4.6.2 Hindi
3.5.4.6.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.5 Aspects
3.5.5.1 Habitual 3.5.5.1.1 Malayalam
3.5.5.1.2 Hindi 3.5.5.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.5.2 Trial 3.5.5.2.1 Malayalam
3.5.5.2.2 Hindi 3.5.5.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.5.3 Completive 3.5.5.3.1 Malayalam
3.5.5.3.2 Hindi 3.5.5.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.5.4 Reflexive 3.5.5.4.1 Malayalam
3.5.5.4.2 Hindi 3.5.5.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.5.5 Durative 3.5.5.5.1 Malayalam
3.5.5.5.2 Hindi 3.5.5.5.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.5.6 Perfective 3.5.5.6.1 Malayalam
3.5.5.6.2 Hindi 3.5.5.6.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.6 Mood 3.5.6.1 Possibility
3.5.6.1.1 Malayalam 3.5.6.1.2 Hindi
3.5.6.1.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.6.2 Obligatory
3.5.6.2.1 Malayalam 3.5.6.2.2 Hindi
3.5.6.2.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.6.3 Inceptive
3.5.6.3.1 Malayalam 3.5.6.3.2 Hindi
3.5.6.3.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.6.4 Ability
3.5.6.4.1 Malayalam 3.5.6.4.2 Hindi
3.5.6.4.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.7 Passive voice
3.5.7.1 Malayalam 3.5.7.2 Hindi
3.5.7.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.8 Transitives
3.5.8.1 Malayalam 3.5.8.2 Hindi
3.5.8.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities
3.5.9 Causatives
3.5.9.1 Malayalam 3.5.9.2 Hindi
3.5.9.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.10 Defective verbs
3.5.10.1 Malayalam 3.5.10.2 Hindi
3.5.10.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.11 Intensifiers
3.5.11.1 Malayalam 3.5.11.2 Hindi
3.5.11.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities 3.5.12 Adverbs
3.5.12.1 Malayalam 3.5.12.2 Hindi
3.5.12.3 Similarities and Dissimilarities    

CHAPTER III

MORPHOLOGY

Noun
Nouns are those units which take case markers. In both Malayalam and Hindi nouns are declinables which distinguish the categories of Gender, Number and Case.

3.1.1. Gender1

3.1.1.1. Malayalam

The gender distinction of Dravidian language is more rational. Generally masculine and feminine distinctions are observed only for rational beings. But in stylistic usage gender distinction can be made even in the case of irrational beings. That is to refer a cow; the speaker has the freedom to use 'she' or 'it'. To a large extent Malayalam gender is a semantic-cum-grammatical category. There are three genders in Malayalam: masculine, feminine and neuter.

Masculine gender : miTukkan 'clever boy'
ve:lakka:ran 'male-servant'
Feminine gender : miTukki 'clever girl'
ve:lakka:ri 'maid servant'
Neuter gender : miTukk 'cleverness'
maTi 'laziness'

Formation of female-denoting nouns from male-denoting nouns in Malayalam

1.A male denoting noun ending in -an changes the final -an to -i to form the female denoter.

-an > -i

Masculine Feminine
ku:TTuka:ran ku:TTuka:ri
'friend' 'friend'

(2) -an or -a:n ending forms denoting castes or social classes replace it with -atti or -a:tti -an or -a:n > a:tti or -a:tti

Masculine Feminine
kuRvan kuRatti
'kurava man' 'kurava women'
vaNNa:n vaNNa:tti
'washerman' 'washerwomen'

(3) - an > -cci

Masculine Feminine
taTiyan taTicci
'fat man' 'fat women'
maTiyan maTicci
'lazy man' 'lazy women'

(4) In some of the Sanskrit loan words,
-ma:n > -mati

Masculine Feminine
buddhima:n buddhimati
'clever man' 'clever woman'
sri:ma:n sri:mati
'prosperous man' 'prosperous woman '

(5) Sanskrit loan words for their Malayalam neuter forms ending in -m,
-va:n > -vati

Masculine Feminine
bhagava:n bhagavati
'god' 'goddess'
bha:gyava:n bha:gyavati
'blessed man' 'blessed woman'

(6) Feminine marker -aL replaces -an in agentive nouns and nouns derived from an adjectives and in third person demonstrative pronouns.
-an > -aL

Masculine Feminine
nallavan nallavaL
'good man' 'good women'
avan avaL
'that boy' 'that girl'

(7) Several nouns have entirely different forms in masculine and feminine genders [2].

Masculine Feminine
acchan amma
'father' 'mother'
purusan stri :
'man' 'woman'
ka:La pasu
'ox' 'cow'

(8) By adding morphemes or words which show gender to certain nouns which do not
express the masculine or feminine gender.

Masculine Feminine
kompana:na piTiya:na
'tusker' 'she elephant'
pu:vanko:li piTako:li
'cock' 'hen'
a:N paTTi peNpaTTi
'he dog' 'bitch'

Common gender
There are certain nouns which belong to the common gender, because they do not indicate any gender distinction. For common gender singular there is no suffix and for plural suffix employed is -aR.

manusyaR 'human beings'
kaLikka:R 'players'
nallavaR 'good people'

Loan words
The gender distinction of Malayalam words borrowed from Sanskrit will create problems. Some of these loan words take Malayalam suffixes.

Masculine Feminine
jye:sTan jye:sTatti
'brother' 'brother's wife'

2. It is also possible to consider that such nouns grammatically are devoid of masculine-feminine distinction.
But there are some loan words which follow the Sanskrit grammar even though the masculine suffixes of Malayalam are accepted in most cases.

Masculine Feminine
buddhima:n buddhimati
'clever man' 'clever lady'
adhya:pakan adhya:pika
'teacher ' 'teacher'

3.1.1.2 Hindi
In Hindi gender is a grammatical category except for animate nouns, where it is agreeing with semantic gender. Hindi nouns belong to two grammatical genders, masculine and feminine, which are not strictly decided by meaning. In Hindi names of males are masculine and of females are feminine. But names of inanimate objects and collective nouns are also either masculine or feminine. That is, there is no neuter gender in Hindi.

Animate nouns

Masculine Feminine
pita ma:ta
'father' 'mother'
l>rka l>rki
'boy' 'girl'
ca:ca ca:ci
'paternal uncle' 'paternal aunt'

Collective nouns

Masculine Feminine
samu:h samiti
'group' 'committee'
varg sarka:r
'class' 'government'

Inanimate nouns:

Masculine Feminine
ka:gaz ' ciTThi
'paper 'letter'
go:b>r churi
'cow-dung' 'a knife'

Formation of Female-denoting Nouns from Male-denoting nouns in Hindi.

(1) By changing the endings of the male-denoting nouns.

a) -a: > i:

Masculine Feminine
l>rka l>rki
'boy' 'girl'
gho:ra gho:ri
'horse' 'mare'

b) -a: or -va: > -iya:

Masculine Feminine
kutta kutiya
'dog' 'bitch'
bu:rha burhiya
'old man' 'old woman'

c) Noun ending in inherent -a > -i:

Masculine Feminine
hiran(a): hirani:
'deer' 'doe'
nar(a) na:ri:
'man' 'woman'
putr(a) putri:
'son' 'daughter'

d) -i: (nouns showing castes, communities or professionals) > - in

Masculine Feminine
dho:bi: dho:bin
'washer man' 'washer woman'
ma:li: ma:lin
'gardener' 'garden woman'

e) Generally when penultimate vowel is strong
-(a) or -a: or -u: > -in

Masculine Feminine
luha:r (a) luha:rin
'blacksmith' 'blacksmith's wife'
machua:ra: machua:rin
'fisherman' 'fisherwoman'
Da:ku: Da:kin
'thief' 'devilish woman'

f) (-a) or -I:> o+ -a:ni:

Masculine Feminine
devar(a) devara:ni:
'husband's younger brother' 'husband's younger brother's wife'
se:Th(a) se:Tha:ni:
'a businessman' 'seth's wife'

g) -i: or (a) > -ni:

Masculine Feminine
vidya:rthi: vidya:rthini:
'pupil' 'pupil (fem.)'
u:T(a) u:Tni:
'camel' 'female camel'

Though already cited under the general changes found for the formation of feminine nouns from masculine nouns in Hindi, the changes met with by the Sanskrit nouns are enlisted below:

(II) Sanskrit male denoting nouns also form corresponding female denoting forms by changing the ending.

a) (-a) > -a:

Masculine Feminine
priyatam(a) priyatama:
'husband' 'wife'
pandit( a) pandita:
'scholar' 'scholarly woman'
tanay (a) tanaya:
'son' 'daughter'

b) -ak(a) -ika:

Masculine Feminine
sevak(a) sevika:
'servant' 'woman servant'
ba:lak(a) ba:lika:
'boy' 'girl'
adhya:pak(a) adhya:pika:
'teacher' 'lady teacher'

c) -ma:n -mati:

Masculine Feminine
buddhima:n buddhimati:
'wiseman' 'wise woman'
ri:ma:n ri:mati:
'prosperous man' 'prosperous woman'

d) -va:n -vati:

Masculine Feminine
dhanva:n dhanvati:
'richman' 'rich woman'
bhagva:n bhagvati:
'god' 'goddess'

e) -ta: > -tri:

Masculine Feminine
abhine:ta: abhine:tri:
'actor' 'actress'
da:ta: da:tri:
'donor man' 'donor woman'

(III) Formation of gender by adding morphemes or words.

Masculine Feminine
nar(a)k>:a ma:da:k>a
'male crow' 'female crow'
purus(a) pa:tr(a) stri: pa:tr(a)
'male character' 'female character'

(IV) Several nouns have entirely different forms in masculine and feminine gender.

Masculine Feminine
pita ma:ta:
'father' 'mother'
pati patni
'husband' 'wife'
bha:i b>h>n
'brother' 'sister'
ra:ja ra:Ni
'king' 'queen'
bl ga:y
'ox' 'cow'

3.1.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
Gender in Malayalam is a grammatical cum semantic category, whereas in Hindi it is purely a grammatical category except for animate nouns. In Malayalam there are three genders. Masculine and feminine gender, which include all the animate nouns, and neuter gender which includes all the inanimate things. In Hindi there are only two genders masculine and feminine which include all animate and inanimate nouns.
Unlike Hindi in Malayalam gender and number co-exist. That is, av-an 'he' -an is masculine and also singular. Similarly, -aL in av-aL 'she' indicates both feminine gender and singularity. In Hindi lark-a: 'boy' -a: may be masculine but masculine plural is lark-e 'boys'.
In the formation of genders there is not much similarity between the two languages. However, since both the languages contain loan words from Sanskrit similarity can be traced in such borrowed nouns.

Similar nouns.

In both languages loan words from Sanskrit show similarity in the gender formation. They are treated as similar nouns.

Formation of female denoting nouns from the male denoting nouns of Sanskrit loanwords.
a) -ma:n > -mati

Masculine Feminine
buddhima:n buddhimati
wiseman' 'wise woman'
sri:ma:n sri:mati
'prosperous man' 'prosperous woman'

b) -va:n > -vati:

Masculine Feminine
dhanava:n dhanavati
'richman' 'rich woman'
bhagava:n bhagavati
'god' 'goddess'

 

Partially similar nouns

Partially similar noun means a loan word in which feminine gender is same in both the languages, but masculine gender is different; in Malayalam some of the Sanskrit loan words took Malayalam masculine gender marker itself, and some of them changed their form very little.
e.g.
abhine:ta > abdhine:ta:v> 'actor'
da:ta: > da:ta:v> 'donor'

Some other nouns take the masculine markers -an.
e.g.
priyatam > priyataman 'husband'
se:vak > se:vakan 'servant'
ba:lak > ba:lakan 'boy'
adhya:pak > adhya:pakan 'teacher'

The feminine gender for these nouns is same in both Malayalam and Hindi.

e.g.


Malayalam
Hindi and English
abhine:ta:v> > abhine:tri abhineta: > abhinetri: 'actor' 'actress'
da:ta:v> > da:tri
da:ta: > da:tri: 'donor' 'donor woman'
ba:lakan > ba:lika ba:lak > ba:lika: 'boy' 'girl'
adhya:pakan > addhya:pika adhya:pak > adhya:pika:'teacher' 'lady teacher'

 

3.1.2. Number

3.1.2.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam there are two numbers, singular and plural. The noun theme itself is ordinarily singular. With the addition of certain suffixes plural forms indicating two or more are obtained.

Plural morpheme in Malayalam

The plural suffixes in Malayalam are -kaL, -ma:R and -aR

The distribution of these suffixes are as follows:

I. -kaL occurs with

a) Non-human nouns ending in -a and -u
e.g.

Singular
Plural
kaTa kaTakaL
'shop'
'shops'
a:na a:nakaL
'elephant' 'elephants'
cumatala cumatalakaL
'responsibility' 'responsibilities'
pasu pasukkaL
'cow' 'cows'

b) Nouns ending in -i, -l, -am and ->
e.g.


Singular
Plural
ceTi ceTikaL
'plant'
'plants'
paTTi paTTikaL
'dog' 'dogs'
stri: stri:kaL
'lady' 'ladies'
kaTal kaTalukaL
'sea' 'seas'
maram marannaL
'tree' 'trees'
palam palannaL
'fruit' 'fruits'
ka:T> ka:TukaL
'forest' 'forests'
peNN> peNNunnaL
'lady' 'ladies'
kaNN> kaNNukaL
'eye' 'eyes'
ku> kuunnaL
'child' 'children'


The following morpho-phonemic changes occur when -kaL occurs as plural morpheme.

(1) when -kaL occurs after -u ending nouns the -k is geminated.

e.g.
pasu + kal -> pasukkaL 'cows'
jantu + kaL -> jantukkaL 'animals'
pulu + kaL -> pulukkaL 'worms'

(2) When -kaL occurs after -am ending stems -am changes to -nn.
e.g.
pa:Tam + kaL -> pa:TannaL 'fields'
karam + kaL -> karannaL 'hands'
maram + kaL -> marannal 'trees'

(3) When -kaL occurs after - ending human disyllabic nouns -kaL >-nnaL and -> > -u
e.g.
peNN> + kaL -> peNNunnaL 'ladies'

ku> + kaL -> kuunnaL 'children'

(4) When -kaL occurs after -> ending non-human nouns and -l ending nouns -> > -u
and then take -kaL marker.
e.g.
kaNN> + kaL -> kaNNukaL 'eyes'
ka:T> + kaL -> ka:TukaL 'forests'
kaTal + kaL -> kaTalukaL 'seas'

II. -ma:R occurs after -a ending, -u ending, -i ending, >- ending and -n ending human nouns. -ma:R may occur in free variation with -kaL in a few cases.
e.g.


Singular
Plural
amma ammama:r
'mother'
'mothers'
guru gurukkanma:r
'teacher' 'teachers'
ra:ja:v> ra:ja:kkanma:r
'king' 'kings'
pita:v> pita:kkanma:r
'father' 'fathers'
saho:dari saho:darima:r ~sho:darikaL
'sister' 'sisters'
mantri mantrima:r ~mantrikaL
'minister' 'ministers'
acchan acchanma:r
'father' 'fathers'
aniyan aniyanma:r
'younger brother' 'younger brothers'


The following morphophonemic changes occur when -ma:R occurs as plural
marker.

(a) -u ending nouns -kk- will come as link morph and -ma:r > -anma:r
e.g.
guru + ma:r -> gurukkanma:r 'teachers'
prabhu + ma:r -> prabhukkanma:r 'landlords'

(b) In -> ending forms after dropping the last syllable -kk- will come as link morph
and -ma:r > -anma:r.
e.g.
ra:ja:v> + ma:r -> ra:ja:kkanma:r 'kings'
pita:v> + ma:r -> pita:kkanma:r 'fathers'


III. -aR occurs as plural suffix for common gender human nouns.
e.g.
manusy -aR 'human beings'

The plural marker is optional with the nouns of non-personal type when they are
preceded by a numeral adjective.

e.g.
pattu pustakam ~ 'ten books'
pattu pustakannaL

Epicene Plural in Malayalam

The plural forms indicating plurality without reference to gender are marked with the plural marker -aR in Malayalam. These plural forms are epicene in character, including both masculine and feminine forms.
e.g.

Singular
Epicence Plural
saho:dari 'sister' saho:darar 'including both brothers and sisters'
saho:daran'brother'
 
adhya:pika 'lady teacher' adhya:pakar 'teachers' (including male and female)
adhya:pakan 'teacher (male)  

Double Plural in Malayalam

In Malayalam the plural marker -kaL occurs after first person (pl) exclusive will express double plurality.
e.g. a + n + kaL > annaL 'we (excl.) '

Singular personal markers are found in first, second and reflexive pronouns.
e.g. -n occurs after a: +n > a:n ' I '
occurs after ni:+ > ni: 'you'
ta: +n > ta:n 'self'

Honorific Singular in Malayalam

-kaL and -aR are suffixes of honorific singular in Malayalam. Plural marker is used to show respect even though the noun is singular.
e.g.
ninnaL 'you' (both singular and plural)
avarkaL 'referring to one person'
bhaTTar 'referring to a Brahmin'

There are nouns which do not take plural marker even when the idea is plural.
e.g.
co: R> 'cooked rice'
veLLam 'water'
ari 'rice'

3.1.2.1. Hindi

Hindi also distinguishes two numbers, singular and plural. Singular is not generally shown by any overt marker and plural is marked by suffix.

Plural morpheme in Hindi

In Hindi masculine and feminine nouns will take different plural markers.

The plural morpheme in Hindi is:

For masculine nouns -e
-e occurs with masculine nouns ending in -a:, when it is not followed by a case marker, it replaces the final -a:
e.g.

Singular
Plural
pata: pate
'address'
'addresses'
ghora: ghore
'horse' 'horses'
kutta kutte
'dog' 'dogs'

O occurs with masculine nouns ending in -a: which are of Sanskrit origin and which changed the final sound as -a: in Hindi and also some native Hindi nouns which end in -a:. O occurs with all other masculine nouns irrespective of endings.

Sanskrit loan words

 

Singular
Plural
abineta: abhineta:O
'actor'
'actors'
da:da: da:da: O
'donor' 'donors'

Native Hindi words


Singular
Plural
na:na: na:na:O
'mother's father'
 
ca:ca: ca:ca: O
'father's father'  
   
   

other masculine words, which take O as plural marker.



Singular
Plural
pati pati O
'husband'
'husbands'
kavi kavi O
'poet' 'poets'
ma:li: ma:li:f
'gardener' 'gardeners'

II. For feminine nouns

/- e~ a a ~ a ~ /

/ -e / occurs with feminine nouns ending in - (a) , -a:, -u, or , -u: and not followed by case markers.

e.g.

Singular
Plural
:kh(a) :khe~:
'eye'
'eyes'
>:rat (a) >:rate~:
'woman' 'women'
ma:ta: ma:ta: ye~:
'mother' 'mothers'
rtu rtuve~:
'season' 'seasons'
vadhu: vadhuve~:
'bride' 'brides'

/-a:/ occurs with feminine nouns ending in -i and -i: and not followed by case markers.

e.g.


Singular
Plural
na:ri: na:riy:
'woman'
'women'
nadi: nadiy:
'river' 'rivers'

/ ~ / occurs with feminine nouns ending in -ya: when not followed by case markers.

e.g.


Singular
Plural
ciriya: ciriy:
'bird'
'birds'

The following morphophonemic changes occur when

1. / - e / occurs as plural marker

(a) nouns ending in (a) replaces the (a) and take the plural marker e~.
e.g.
aurat(a) 'woman' > aurate~: 'women'

(b) nouns ending in -a: when take -e plural marker -y glide will come before the
marker.
e.g.
a:sa: + e > a:sa:ye~: 'hopes'

(c) nouns ending in -u or -u: , v glide will come
e.g. rtu + e > rtuve~: 'seasons'

(2) / - / occurs as plural morpheme

(a) -i: ending nouns will take the plural marker with y glide after shortening the final
vowel.
e.g. na:ri: + : > na:riy : 'women'

(b) -i ending nouns will take - : with a y glide.
e.g. ni: ti + a > ni:tiy : 'policies'

Epicene Plural in Hindi

In Hindi there are some masculine nouns whose plural may have semantically an epicene nature. The plurals of the nouns vidya:rthi 'student', kavi 'poet', a:dmi: 'm,an' etc. show epicene nature and include females of the group also. But in Hindi verbs and adjectives, which are in concord with nouns, will come along with these nouns and in this context behave only as masculine plural nouns.

3.1.2.2. Similarities and dissimilarities

Both Malayalam and Hindi distinguish two numbers, Singular and Plural. In both languages singular is not shown by any overt marker.e.g.

Singular

Malayalam
Hindi and English
stri: na:ri: 'woman'
pasu
ga:y 'cow'
kaNN> :kh(a) 'eye'

In both languages plurals are commonly formed by the addition of certain suffixes. Exception is found in Hindi when the marker is f in the case of few nouns.

e.g.

Plural

Malalyalam
Hindi and English
stri:kaL
na:riy 'women'
pasukkaL ga:ye~: 'cows'
kaNNukaL :khe~: 'eyes'

Epicene plural forms are found in Malayalam. But in Hindi epicene plurals are not so common.

Honorific singular found in Malayalam is absent in Hindi.

Unlike Hindi in Malayalam personal pronouns take singular and plural markers. Singular marker -n and O are found in first person, second person and reflexive pronouns. -kaL occurs after first person plural exclusive pronoun will express double plurality.

3.1.3. Case

3.1.3.1. Malayalam

The case indicates the relation which a noun or pronoun has with neighboring words. In Malayalam, cases are added to the nouns or pronouns as suffixes. The eight cases in Malayalam with their markers and example are given below:

Case
Marker
Example
1. Nominative Nil makal 'daughter'
2. Accusative -e makaLe (object)
3. Sociative o:T> ammayo:T>'to mother'
4. Instrumental -a:1 ammaya:l 'by other'
5. Dative -kku, -u, -inu makaLkku 'to daughter' avanu 'to him'
marattinu 'to the tree'
6. Genitive -uTe, -Re ammayuTe 'mother's'
acchanRe ' father's'
7. Locative -il, -kal marattil 'in the tree'
paTikkal 'in the step'
8. Vocative -a > -e :
-a > a:
i > i :
-con.> -e:
amma > amma : or amme:
ravi > ravi :
makan > makane :


In Malayalam there is no ablative case marker separately. But the purpose is served by using an extra word 'ninnu' after the locative suffix -il or -kal.

e.g. marattil ninn> 'from the tree'
paTikkal ninn> 'from the step'

1. Nominative Case
In Malayalam the nominative case of the noun is unmarked. The noun in the nominative appears as subject.

e.g. makaL elutt> eluti
'daughter wrote letter'

2. Accusative case
Accusative case marker is -e Malayalam. The object in the sentence usually takes accusative case marker. For neuter gender this case marker is optional. The addition of the suffix -e makes the noun or pronoun an object.

e.g. ra:man krusNane viLiccu
'Rama called Krishna'

avaL kuTTiye eTuttu
'she took the child'

avan maram veTTi
'he cut the tree'
(neuter gender - maram O)

3. Sociative case

The case marker is o:Tu. This suffix usually comes in connection with speaking, informing, asking or with comparison. Here the indirect object becoming an agency an agency for social intercourse.

e.g. avaL ammayo:Tu co:diccu
'She asked mother'

avan daivatto:tu pra:rtthiccu
'She prayed to God'

ra:mane krusNa no:Tu ta:ratamyappeTutta:m
'Rama can be compared with Krishna'.

4.Instrumental case

-a:l is the case marker. 'koNTu' a verbal participle form of the verb stem koL-occurs as a post position giving the same meaning. This case marker is used to show instruments with which action is done or parts of the body which are used in doing the action.

e.g. adhya:pakan vaTiya:l aTiccu
'Teacher beat with stick'

nammaL kaNNa:l ka:Nunnu
'we see with the eyes'

koNTu can occur in free variation with -a:1.

e.g. vaTikoNTu ~ vaTiya:1
kaNNu koNTu ~ kaNNa:l

In Malayalam -a:1 can be used to show the components with which things are made.

e.g. taTiya:1 ceyta peTTi
'The box made of wood'

In certain contexts it can be replaced with locative case marker -il also

e.g. taTiyil ceyta peTTi
'The box made of wood'.

In passive voice, the doer of the action and in causative sentence, the medial agent takes the instrumental marker.

e.g. ra:mana:l oru elutt> elutappeTTu
'a letter was written by Rama'

a:n avaLekkoNTu ii jo:li ceyyippiccu
' I made her to do this work'

5. Dative case
The dative case markers are -kku, -u, inu. Indirect object takes dative case marker.

e.g. amma kuTTiykku pa:1 koTuttu
'mother gave milk to the child'

a:n ru:pa acchanu koTuttu
' I gave the money to father'

Some times to show the purpose, the post position 've:NTi' is added with the dative case marker.

e.g. a: n avaLkku ve:NTi oru sa:ri va:nni
'I bought a Saree for her'

6. Genitive case
The Genitive case markers in Malayalam are -uTe and -Re. This markers show possession of something.

e.g. si:tayuTe vi:T> 'Sita's house'
acchanRe pe:na 'Fathers pen'

7. Locative case

The case marker are -il and -kaL. The postposition 'me:l' also gives the sense of location. Another post position 'pakkal' to be used to indicate a type of location meaning 'at the custody of'. It occurs only after genitive case

e.g. avnaRe pakkal 'at his custody'

8. Vocative case

For vocative case the final vowel of a vowel ending sound will lengthen.
v > v:
consonant ending will drop the final consonant.

e.g. acchan > accha: 'Father' (voc.)
de:van > de:va: 'O God'

Declensional characteristics of Malayalam nouns

When case markers are added to nouns morphophonemic changes occur to the noun stems according to the ending of the nouns. The changes are as follows:

1. Nouns ending in -i and -a.

-i or -a + case marker > -i or -a + y + case marker

e.g. amma + e > ammaye (object)
vali + e > valiye 'through the path'
kaTa + il > kaTayil 'in the shop'
ceTi + kku > ceTiykku 'to the plant'

2. Nouns ending in -u
-u + case marker > -u + vin + case marker

e.g. bandhu + e > bandhuvine (object)
guru + o:Tu > guruvino:Tu 'to teacher'
pasu + Re > pasuvinRe 'cow's'

3. Nouns ending in ->
-> + case marker > O in + case marker

e.g. ra:ja:v> + nu > ra:ja:vinu 'to kind'
pu:v> + il > pu:vil 'in the flower'

* exception for the nouns which have - T- in the last syllable for locative case markers only.
ka:T + il > ka:TTil 'in the forest'

4. Nouns ending in -n and -l will take case markers without any changes.

e.g. avan + e > avane (object)
makan + il > makanil 'in son'
makaL + uTe > makaLuTe 'daughters'

5. Nouns ending in -am

-am + case marker > -tt in + case marker

e.g. maram + e > maratte (object)
maram + il > marattinRe 'in the tree'

4. Nouns ending in -l and -r.

-l or -r + case marker > -l or -r -in- + case marker

e.g. kaTal + Re > kaTalinRe 'of the sea'
kaTal + il > kaTalil 'in the sea'
kayaR + Re > kayaRinRe 'of the rope'

3.1.3.2. Hindi

The cases in Hindi indicate the relation of a noun or pronoun with the neighboring word. In Hindi case markers are added separately and nouns will modify accordingly. There are eight cases in Hindi, which are given below with their markers and examples.


Case
Marker
Example
1. Nominative ne ra:m ne (sub)
2. Accusative ko ra:m ko (obj)
3. Instrumental se kalam se 'with pen'
4. Dative ko si:ta ko 'to sita'
5.Ablative se paha:t se 'from the mountain'
6. Genitive ka:, ke or ki: si:ta: ka: ghar 'sita's house'
7. Locative me, par khirki: par 'on the window'
8. Vocative -a : > -e  

1. Nominative case

The nominative case marker in Hindi is 'ne'. The subject of transitive verb takes this case marker hen the verb is in a tense form, formed from the past participle base (i.e., past indefinite, past perfect, past doubtful, etc.). The subject of intransitive verb never takes any marker.

Transitive verb - past
e.g. m ne yah tasvi:r dekhi: h
'I have seen this picture'

Transitive verb : non past
e.g. billi: du:dh pi: rahi: h
'The cat is drinking milk'

Intransitive verb
e.g. m kal dill : ja:u:ga:
'I will go to Delhi tomorrow'
v>h yah : kab a:ya: ?
'When did he come here? '

In Hindi, when the noun takes the nominative maker -ne, theverb is in concord with the object in gender and number.

2. Accusative case

The accusative case marker in Hindi is 'ko' or 'O'. For nonpersonal or irrational objects this case marker is optional. With the case marker it refers to a particular thing or things.

e.g. ek pustakf la:o:
'bring a book'
pustak ko vah: mat rakho:
'Do not keep the book there'

In Hindi when the noun takes nominative case marker 'ne' and the object takes accusative case marker 'ko', then verb will be in the masculine singular gender without concord with either the subject or object.

3. Instrumental case

The instrumental case marker in Hindi is 'se'. It shows the instruments with which action is done or parts of body which are used in doing the action.

e.g. m kalam se likhti : hu:
'I am writing with pen'
ham ka:no: se sunte h :
'We are hearing with ears'

In passive voice the doer of the action and in causative sentence the medial agent also takes the instrumental case marker 'se'.

e.g. sunita: se ek gi:t ga:ya: gaya:
'A song was sung by Sunita'
m ne y>h ka:m n>:kar se kara:ya
'I had this word done by the servant'

In Hindi the post position 'dva:ra: ' or 'zariye' which occur after 'ke' also give the meaning 'by the way of'. These can be substituted for 'se'.

e.g. yah ciTThi: hava:i: jaha:z ke dva:ra: a:yi: h
or
yah citthi: hava:i jaha:z ke zariye a:yi: h
' This letter has come by aeroplane'

In Hindi for showing accompaniment of abstract feelings or nonabstract things or persons 'se' is used with names of abstract feelings only. -ke sa:th, 'same:t' and 'sahit' are used with all nouns without semantic restrictions.

e.g. vah khusi: ke sa:th a:yega:
'He will come with pleasure'
savita pati samet a:yi
'Savita came with her husband'

4. Dative case

In Hindi indirect objects take the marker 'ko' when a sentence has direct and indirect objects, generally direct object takes f marker and indirect takes 'ko'. But if the direct object is + human the marker 'ko' is obligatory.

e.g. m ne rupaya: pita:ji: ko s>: pa:
'I gave the money to father'

'liye' and 'va:ste' which occur after 'ke' are post positions in Hindi which give the meaning of purpose or intention.

e.g. m ne bahin ke liye ek sa:ri: khari: di:
'I bought a Saree for sister'

5. Ablative case
The ablative case marker in Hindi is 'se' it expresses spatial or temporal separation.

e.g. per se patte: gire:
'Leaves fell from the tree'

For showing comparison also 'se' is used.

e.g. saca:i: se bar kar kuch nahi : h
'Bigger than truth nothing is there'

5. Genitive case

The genitive case markers in Hindi are ka:, ke, ki: which are morphologically conditioned, where distribution depends upon the gender and number of the noun possessed and whether the noun is followed by case marker or not.

Their distribution is as follows;

(1) 'ka:' precedes a noun which is masculine singular and not followed by case marker.
e.g. nadiyo: ka: pa: ni: 'The water of the rivers'
larkiyo: ka: khe: l 'The play of girl's'

(2) 'ke' precedes a masculine plural noun, whether it is followed by case marker or not, masculine singular nouns followed by case marker, and before any noun when it is being possessed by a possessor and is expressed by a possessive verb, h, h , tha:, thi:, etc. and 'ke' precedes most of the relational words.

e.g. larke ke ha:th 'the boy's hands'
larko: ke khel:lo: ka: 'of the plays of the boys'
savita: ke ghar se 'from the house of savita'
mi:ra: ke ek bahan h: 'meera has a sister'
sku:l ke sa:mne 'in front of the school'
kamre ke andar 'inside the room'

(3) 'ki: ' precedes all feminine nouns and a few relational words.

e.g. ra:m ki: bahan 'Ram's sister'
bha:rat ki: nadiy: 'Rivers of India'
larki: ki: :kho: me 'in the eyes of the girl'
ghar ki: o:r 'towards the house'
larke ki: tarah 'like the boy'

6. Locative case
The case markers in Hindi are me, par. In Hindi 'me' means 'in' or 'inside' and 'par' means 'on' or 'at'.
e.g. nadi: me pa:ni: nahi: h :
'There is no water in the river'
mez par kalam h :
'There is pen on the table'

7. Vocative case
In Hindi the masculine singular nouns ending in -a: will change to -e and the plural nouns ending in -e will change to -o, when they take vocative case marker.
e.g. larka : > larke 'o boy'
larke (pl.) > lorko 'o boys'

Declensional characteristics of Hindi nouns

In Hindi plural form of all the nouns irrespective of gender, will change similarly when case markers are added to them. All of them will take the marker o: finally.

noun (pl.) -L + case marker > -o: + case marker
(-L is the final sound of the plural noun.)

e.g. larke: + ko > larko ko 'to the boys'
ri:tiya: + me > ritiyo me: 'in the methods'
kita:be: + se > kita:bo se 'from the books'
vadhuve: + par > vadhuvo par 'on brides'

The singular nouns of Hindi when they take case marker show changes as follows:

(1) Masculine nouns ending in -a:, which will change the final sound to -e while taking plural markers.
-a: + case marker > -e + case marker
e.g. larka : + ko > larke ko 'to the boy'

(2) All other masculine and feminine singular nouns take case marker without any change.

e.g. ra:ja: + se > ra:ja: se 'from the king'
kavi: + ka: > kavi: ka: 'poets'
devi: + ne > devi: ne 'goddess' (sub)
vadhu: + par > vadhu: par 'upon bride'

3.1.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

While comparing Malayalam and Hindi cases it is found that similarity is very less between the two languages. The case markers of the two languages show semantic equivalence with some postpositions. To compare the two languages it is better to consider each case separately as follows:

(1) Nominative case
In Malayalam there is no case marker for this case while in Hindi it is marked by 'ne'. But in both languages nominative form is used as the subject.

e.g. M. li:la oru palam tinnu
H. li:la ne ek ph>l kha:ya:
'Leela ate a fruit'

M. amma kuTTiye viLiccu
H. m:ne bacche ko bula:ya:
'mother called the child'

(2) Accusative case

The accusative case markers in Malayalam are -e or f and in Hindi ko, f. In both languages this case marker is added to nominal or pronominal direct objects. In both languages nonpersonal or irrational objects may or may not take accusative marker.

e.g. M. acchan makane viLiccu
H. pita: ne beTe ko bula:ya:
'Father called the son'
M. a:n oru pustakam va:nni
H. m ne ek pustak khari:di:
'I purchased a book'
M. pustakatte aviTe vaykkarut>
H. pustak ko vah : mat rakho
'Don't keep the book there'

(3) Instrumental case

The case marker in Malayalam is '-a:l' and in Hindi 'se' In Malayalam the postposition 'koNTu' occurs in free variation with -a:l.

e.g. M. avan pe:naya:l elutunnu
avan pe:nakoNT> elutunnu
H. vah kalam se likhta: h:
'He is writing with pen'

In both languages the doer of action in a sentence in the passive voice, and the medial agent in a causative sentence take the instrumental marker.

e.g. M. a:n a: jo:li ve:lakkaranekkoNTu ceyyiccu
H. m ne vah ka:m n>:kar se kara:ya:
'I made the servant to do the work'
M. ra:mana:l oru elutt elutappeTTu
H. ram se ek ciTThi : likha: gaya: 'A letter was written by Rama'

In Hindi for getting mediative meaning the post positions 'dva:ra: ' or 'zariye' is used after 'ke'. In Malayalam the post position 'vali' is the semantic equivalent.

e.g. M I: elutt> vima:nam vali vannu
H ya ciTThi: hava:i: jaha:z ke dva:ra: a:yi: h :
'The letter has come by aeroplane'

In Malayalam -ilu:Te is used as the semantic equivalent for Hindi 'se' where it will give the meaning 'through', 'along'.

e.g. M. kuTTi janalilu:Te no:kki
kuTTi janalvali no:kki
H. bachi: khirki: se dekhti: h :
'The child is looking through the window'

The post positions 'sahitam' and 'same:tam' in Malayalam and 'sahit' and 'samet' in Hindi are same. They are generally used with Sanskrit tatsama words only.

e.g. M. avaL santo:satto:Te varum
avaL santo:satto:Tu ku:Ti varum
H. vah khusi: se a:yegi:
vah khusi: ke sa:th a:yegi:
'She will come with pleasure'
M. ra:man patni: same:tam vannu
H. ra:m patni: samet/ke sa:th a:ya:
'Ram came with his wife'

4) Dative case

Dative case markers in Malayalam are -kku, -u, inu and in Hindi 'ko'. In both languages when the sentence has direct and indirect objects, indirect object takes the dative case marker.

e.g. M a:n ru:pa acchanu koTuttu
H. m :ne rupaya: pita:ji: ko diya:
'I gave the money to father'
If the direct object is + human the dative marker is obligatory.

To show the purpose or intention the post position 've:NTi' or 'a:yi' is used in Malayalam after the dative case marker and in Hindi 'liye' or 'va:ste' after 'ke'.
e.g. M. a:n enRe makaLkku ve:NTi oru sa:ri va:nni
na:n enRe makaLkka:yi oru sa:ri va:nni

H. m : ne apani: beti: ke liye ek sa:ri: khari:di:
' I bought a Saree for my daughter'

(5) Genitive case

For expressing possession the marker used in Malayalam is -uTe, -Re and in Hindi ka, ke, ki:. In Hindi these markers are morphologically conditioned, which depends on the number and gender of the noun possessed and upon whether the noun is followed by case marker or not. But Malayalam markers depend upon the noun endings only.

e.g. M. lalitayuTe vi:T>
H. lalita: ka: ghar
'Lalita's house'
M. lalitayuTe vi:TTil ninn>
H. lalita: ke ghar se
'from Lalitha's house'
M. pasuvinRe va:l
H. ga:y ki: puch
'Cow's tail'

(6) Locative case
Locative case marker in Malayalam is -il, -kal and in Hindi 'me' and 'par'. In Malayalam, generally the -il, has the sense 'in', 'inside' and -kal has the sense of 'at'. In Hindi 'par' means 'on' or 'at'. The post position 'me:l' in Malayalam means 'on' or 'above'. 'uLLil' (n.st ul - + loc.suf. -il.) means 'inside in Malayalam and '-ke andar' is the semantic equivalent in Hindi.

e.g. M. kiNaRRil veLLam illa
H. kue me pa:ni: nahi: h :
'There is no water in the well'
M. me:sa me:l / me:sayuTe mukaLil
H mej par 'upon the table'
M. me: sayuTe uLLil
H. mej ke andar
'inside the table'

(7) Vocative case marker

In both languages by lengthening the final sound, mostly vowels, vocative case is obtained.

e.g. Malayalam Hindi
amma > amma: 'mother' larka: > larke
acchan > accha: 'father'

The sociative case is found only in Malayalam. The case is marked with 'o:Tu' whereas in Hindi ablative case form 'se' doing the function of sociative also.

e.g. M. adhya:pakano:Tu co:dikku
H. adya:pak se pu:cho
'ask the teacher'

The ablative case which is found in Hindi is absent in Malayalam. The ablative case marker 'se' of Hindi is semantically equivalent to '-il ninnu' which is obtained in Malayalam by adding the post position 'ninnu' after the locative form of the noun.

e.g. M. marattilninnu vi:Nu
H. per se gira:
'Fell down from the tree'

In Malayalam the plural nouns also take case markers just like singular nouns. The case suffixes are added directly after plural marker. But in Hindi the plural form changes while taking case marker. All Hindi plural nouns, irrespective of gender, when take case marker will change their final sound to - o.

e.g. M. pustakannaL + il > pustakannaLil
H. kita:be + me > kita:bo me 'in the books
M. a:NkuTTikal + kku > a:nkuTTikaLkk> 'to the boys'
H. larke + ko > larko ko

In Malayalam for each case separate case markers are there. But in Hindi same form of case markers are used for more than one case. For example 'ko' is used for accusative as well as dative cases. 'se' is there for instrumental and ablative. This will create ambiguity also.

e.g. H. m ne cor ko puli:s ko dikha:ya:
and
m :ne pulis ko cor ko dikha:ya:

In these two sentences both can mean 'I showed the thief to the police'.
But in Malayalam because of the separate forms of case markers this sort of ambiguity is minimized.
e.g. M. na:n kaLLane po:li:sinu ka:TTikoTuttu
'I showed the thief to the police'.

3.1.4. Derived nouns

Derived nouns are nouns derived from verbs or adjectives.

3.1.4.1. Malayalam

Examples for nouns derived from verbs,
o:TTam 'running' from o:T- 'to run'
ca:TTam 'jumping' from ca:T- 'to jump'

Examples for nouns derived from adjectives,
e.g. nanma 'goodness' from nalla 'good'

The nominalization markers of Malayalam are,
-am, -ma, O, - ca, -vi
e.g. o:TTam 'running'
nanma 'goodness'
aTi f 'beating'
vi:lca 'falling'
ke:Lvi 'hearing'

3.1.4.2. Hindi

Examples for nouns derived from verbs,
kama:i: 'earning' from kama:na: 'to earn'
parha:i: 'study' from parhna: 'to study'

Examples for nouns derived from adjectives,
bura:i: 'badness' from bura: 'bad'
saca:i 'truthfulness' from sacc: 'true'

The nominalizations marker in Hindi is -i:
e.g. kama:i: 'earning'
saca:i: 'truthfulness'

3.1.4.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
th Malayalam and Hindi there are derived nouns, which are nouns derived from verbs or adjectives.
e.g.

Malayalam
Hindi
o:TTam 'running' kama:i: 'earning'
nanma 'goodness'

bura:i: 'badness

'saca:i: 'truthfulness'


 

In Hindi the infinitive form of the verb also functions as verbal noun, which is absent in Malayalam.

e.g.
ba:r ba:r ka:fi: pi:na: accha: nahi : h :
'Drinking coffee often isnot good'
here pi:na: ' is used as a verbal noun.
kal mujhe bambai: ja:na: h :
'I have to go to Bombay tomorrow'.

3.2. Pronouns
Pronouns are those words that are used instead of nouns.

3.2.1. Personal pronouns

3.2.1.1 Malayalam

Personal pronouns in Malayalam are

 

Singular
Plural
I person a:n 'I' nammaL (Incl.) 'we'annaL (Excl.) 'we'
II person ni:
ninnaL 'you'
ninnaL 'you'
Honorofic ta:nkaL 'you' ta: nkaL 'you'

 

Reflexive pronoun

ta:n 'self' (Sg) tannaL 'self'(Pl)

III. person

Remote

Singular
Plural
Masc. avan 'he'
Fem. avaL 'she'
avar 'they
Neu. atu 'that' ava 'those'
Hon. avaR 'he/she'
 

Proximate

Singular
Plural
Masc. ivan 'he'
Fem. ivaL 'she
ivar 'they'(pi)
Neu. itu 'it' iva 'these'(pl)
Hon. ivaR 'he/she'  

Declensional characteristics of pronouns

 

Pronoun
English
Stem for case marker
a:n 'I' en-
ta:n 'self' tan-
ni: 'you' nin-
ninnaL 'you' ninnaL-
ta: nkaL 'you' ta:nkaL-
annaL 'we' annaL-
nammaL 'we' nammaL-
na:m 'we' namm-
avan 'he' avan-
avaL 'she' avaL-
avaR 'that' avar-
atu 'that' avar-
ava 'those' ava-
ivan 'he' ivan-
ivaL 'she' ivaL-
ivaR 'they' ivar-
itu 'it' itin-
iva 'these' iva-


In Malayalam the third personal pronouns are used as demonstrative pronouns also.
e.g. itu enRe pustakam a:N> .
'This is my book'

3.2.1.2. Hindi

Pronouns of Hindi can be classified as follows:

Singular
Plural
I person m : 'I' ham 'we'

II person tu: 'you'

tum 'you'

 
Honorific a:p 'you a:p 'you'

III person Remote vah (Fem. Masc. & Neu.)'he, she or it'

 

ve 'they'
Honorific ve he/she ve 'they'
Proximate
yah (Masc/Fem/Neu)
ye 'they'
Honorific
ye he/she ye 'they'
 


Declensional characteristics of pronouns.

In Hindi the pronouns when they take case markers change their forms. The changing form only are given below:

mæ : + case marker > mujhe-
mæ: + genitive case > mera:
ham + genitive case > hama:ra-
tu + case marker > tujh-
tu + genitive case > tera:
tum + genitive case marker > tuma:ra:
vah + case marker > us-
vah + genetive case > uska:
ve + ne > unhone
ve + other case marker > un-
yah + case marker > is-
ye + ne > inhone
ye + other case markers > in-

(When the pronouns take the accusative case marker 'ko' there can be two forms. It can take the marker as such with the alternate stems or add -e to the alternant stems both are correct).

e.g. The alternant form of mæ: is mujh
mujh + ko > mujhko or mujhe

The third personal pronouns are used as demonstrative pronoun also.
e.g. yah mera: bha:yi: hæ
'This is my brother'

3.2.1.3 Similarities and dissimilarities

Personal pronouns in Malayalam and Hindi are:

Singular
Plural
Malayalam
Hindi
English
Malayalam
Hindi
English
I person ña:n mæ: 'I'

naam(excl.) nammaL na:m(incl.)

ham 'we'

II. Person

ni:

tu: , tum 'you' ninnaL tum 'you'

Honorific

ta:nkaL

a:p 'you' ta:nkaL a:p 'you'
Reflective
ta:n 'self'
  'self' tannaL   'self'
III. Person
Remote
avan (Masc)
avaL (Fem.)
atu (Neu).
vah 'he/she/it'

avaR

ava

ve

'they'

'those'

In this first person singular Malayalam has ña:n ' I ' and the Hindi equivalent is mæ:
Both have similar uses.
e.g. M. na:n po:kunnu
H. mæ: ja:ti hu : :I am going'

In Malayalam ta:n 'self' is also denote the first person singular.
e.g. tanne ta:ne po:ka:m
'I myself will go'

Reflexive pronoun can be used to indicate 'self' and can be used with first, second and third persons.
In the first person plural Malayalam has separate inclusive (speaker + hearer + persons of their group) nammaL and na:m 'we' and exclusive (excluding the persons other than the speaker, and his group). nannaL ' 'we' forms. Whereas in Hindi these both meanings are represented by the single form ham 'we'.

'na:m' in Malayalam is used to authoritative self. Hindi 'ham' is the euivalent: when a person like king will talk he will use 'na:m' to represent ''.
e.g. M. na:m nirdde:sam nalkunnu
H ham a:des dete hæ: 'we are ordering'

Malayalam nammaL 'we' is used when self is identified with a group of persons including the addressee. Hindi 'ham' will also give the same meaning.
e.g. M. nammuTe sku:L
H. hama:ra: sku:1 'our school'

In second person singular Malayalam has form ni: and for Hindi tu: and tum. In formal speech or writing Malayalam ni: or Hindi tu: are seldom used. In both languages it is a terms generally used by elders towards children. It is never used to address strangers. In Malayalam ninnaL is a very frequently used form and in Hindi tum 'you', 'ninnaL' in Malayalam is also used to indicate respect for singular nouns. In Hindi 'tum' cannot be used to elders or superiors. In Malayalam also generally 'ninnaL' is not used to superiors.

The second honorific forms in Malayalam is 'ta:nkaL' and Hindi 'a:p' 'you'. In Malayalam ta:nkaL 'you' is extremely formal and is seldom used in informal conversation but in Hindi a:p 'you' is used not only when addressing respectable persons but also for addressing strangers and when introducing people also.

In Malayalam third person singular pronoun has three separate forms for masculine, feminine and neuter gender. But in Hindi all these forms are represented by the single from 'vah'.

Remote
Mal. avan 'he' Hindi vah 'he/she it'
avaL 'she'
atu 'it'

Proximate
ivan 'he'
ivaL 'he'
itu 'it'
e.g. M avan iviTe vanilla
'He didn't come here',
H van yaha: nahi: a:ya
M. avaL eviTe po:yi
H. vah kaha :gayi: 'where she went'?

In Hindi masculine and feminine gender can be identified from verb, which is in concord with the noun, when there is no case markers with the noun.

In third person plural forms also, Malayalam has 'avaR' for personal nouns and 'ava' for non-personal nouns or remote ones and 'ivaR' and 'iva' for proximate nouns.

Correspondingly Hindi has 've' and 'ye'.

M avaR 'they'
ava 'those' H. ve 'they/those'
ivaR 'they'
iva 'these' H. ve 'they/these'
e.g. M avar eviTe po:yi
H. ve kaha: gaye H. Where they went?'

In both Malayalam and Hindi third person pronouns are used as demonstrative pronouns as well.

3.2.2. Reflexive pronouns

3.2.2.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam the reflexive pronouns are ta:n 'oneself' in singular and tannaL 'oneselves' in plural. 'ta:n' is used to represent second person singular also. Another form used in this sense in Malayalam is 'svayam' 'self'. But unlike 'ta:n' which is a pronoun 'svayam' functions only as an adverb.
e.g. avan ta:n tanne po:ka:menu paRaññu
'He told he will go himself' or
avan svayam po:ka:menu paRaññu
ella:varum tannaLuTe stha:nannaLil irikkaNam
'All of you will have to sit in your own place'.

3.2.2.2. Hindi
The reflexive pronouns in Hindi are 'a:p' and its reduplicated form 'apne a:p' 'by oneself'. 'apne a:p' is commonly used with all pronouns. The possessive of the reflexive 'a:p' is apna: 'yours' it is used with all three persons.
e.g. tum apna : ka:m karo:
'you do your work'
mæ: apne a:p ja:ugi:
'I will go myslef'

3.2.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The reflexive pronouns in Malayalam are ''ta:n' in singular and 'tannaL' in plural. In Hindi 'a:p' is used as the reflexive pronoun in singular and plural. The reduplicated form apne a:p' is used with all pronouns in Hindi. The Sanskrit word 'svayam' is found in both Hindi and Malayalam which function as reflexive.
e.g. M. ña:n svayam po:ka:m
H mæ: apne a:p ja:ugi:
' I will go myself'

In Hindi the word khud 'oneself' also gives the meaning of 'svayam'.
e.g. mæ: khud karugi:
' I will do myself'

In Malayalam the form 'tammil' in between derived from 'ta:n' is used to give the sense of mutuality. The Hindi equivalent is 'a:pas' 'mutual' derived from 'a:p'.
e.g. M. avaR tammil valakkuku:Tunnu
H. ve a:pas me chagra: karte hæ:
'They are quarreling each other'

3.2.4. Interrogative pronouns

3.2.3.1. Malayalam

Interrogative pronouns in Malayalam are:
a:r> 'who'
e:van 'who' (Masc.)
e:vaL 'who' (Fem.)
e:var 'who' (hon. sg. or epicene. pl.)

e.g. 1. avan a:r> a:N> ?
'Who is he? '
2. itu e:vanu ve:Nam ? (in Neg. sense)
'Who want this?'
3. atu e:tu keTTiTam a:N> ?
'Which is that building? '
4. ninnaLkku entu ve:Nam ?
'What you want'?

In relative clause constructions in Malayalam interrogative pronouns are used as relative pronouns along with their corresponding correlatives.

3.2.3.2. Hindi

The interrogative pronouns in Hindi are
k>:n 'who' (personal, sg. and pl.)
kya: 'what' (Non personal, sg. And pl.)
kitna:/kitni: 'how much' (Quantitative)
kitne 'how many' (Numeral)

e.g. 1. yah k> :n hæ:?
'who is this? '
2. ye k>:n hæ:?
'who are they? '
3. iski: andar kya: hæ:?
'what is there inside of this? '
4. a:pko kitne phal ca:hiye?
'How many fruits do you want? '
5. vah kitna: kha:ta hæ:?
'How much does he eat? '

In Hindi the interrogative pronouns sometimes reduplicate and then express plurality explicitly.
e.g. ghar me k>n k>n a:yega:?
'who (all) will come to house? '
a:p kya: kya: lena: cahte hæ:?
'What all do you want to take? '

3.2.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The interrogative pronouns in Malayalam and Hindi are:

 

Malayalam
Hindi
English
a:r>
e:van (Masc)
e:vaL (Fem.)
e:vaR (Hon.sg./epic.pl)
k >:n 'who'
ent> (sg/pl) kya: 'what'
e:t> (Neu.sg) 'which' kitna:/kitni: 'how much'
e:va (Neu.pl) 'which' kitne 'how many'

In Malayalam e:van and e:vaL are generally used to negate something. Such forms are absent in Hindi.
e.g. e:vanum varilla
'Nobody will come'

In Hindi pronouns are often reduplicated to express plurality, such reduplication is absent in Malayalam.
e.g. H. sabha: me k>:n k>:n bolege?
Mal. Equivalent, sabhayil a:rokke samsa:rikkum?
'Who all will speak in the meeting? '

3.2.4. Indefinite pronouns

3.2.4.1. Malayalam

Indefinite pronouns in Malayalam are
a:ro: 'someone' (Prl.)
a:rum 'someone' (Neg.)
e:to: 'some' (Non.prl.)
e:tum 'some' (Non. Prl. Neg)

e.g. 1. a:ro: varunnu
'Someone is coming'
2. a:rum vannilla
'Nobody came'
3. e:to: tirayunnu
'Searching something'
4. e:tum no:kkaNTa
'Nothing you look'

3.2.4.2. Hindi
Indefinite pronouns in Hindi is koi : 'some body'
e.g. koi: a:ya:
'Somebody came'

3.2.4.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam definite pronouns negative forms are separately found. In Hindi there is no equivalent for this.
There is only one form in Hindi for indefinite pronoun.
e.g.
M.
a:ro: 'someone' koi: 'somebody' (H)
a:rum 'nobody'
e:to: 'something'
e:tum 'nothing'

3.3. Adjectives

3.3.1. Inherent adjectives

3.3.1.1. Malayalam

Malayalam has a limited number of inherent adjectives. They can be grouped into two classes based on their potentiality for nominalization.

Class I
(a) nalla 'good'
putiya 'new'
palaya 'old'
ceRiya 'small'
valiya 'big'
eLiya 'humble'
iLaya 'young'
periya 'big'
pala 'various'
cila 'few'
valla 'any'
maRR> 'other'
maRRe 'the other'
inna 'this particular'
kuRiya 'small'
koTiya 'heavy'
ne:riya 'thin'

All these forms can be nominalised by adding respective pronominal markers or by adding separate nominalising markers.
e.g. nallavan 'good person' (Masc.)
ceRiyavaL'small person' (Fem.)
palat> 'different things'
iLayavaR 'young people'

Here 'pala' and 'cila' are semantically plurals and hence qualify only plural nouns.
e.g. cilar 'some persons'
palat> 'various things'

The form 'maRRe' can take both singular and plural nouns whereas 'maRRu' appears only before plurals.
e.g. maRRe ka:ryam 'the other matter'
maRRe ka:ryannaL 'the other things'
maRRu ka:ryannaL 'other matters'

The form 'valla' can take both singular and plural nouns. The head-noun of these adjectives take an empty morph -um obligatorily.

(b) o:ro: 'each'
ella: 'all'
ci:tta 'bad'

These forms do not conform to the general pattern of nominalizations. They do not take the usual pronominal markers. The form 'o:ro:nnum ' each one' is a compound and there is no nominalised form for this adjective. 'ella: ' takes only plurals as head-noun and the head-noun in this case take an empty morph -um e.g.
ella: a:LukaLum 'all persons'
ella:varum 'all persons'

'ci:tta' has the same form when it is used as a nominal or adjective.
e.g. ci:tta paTam 'bad picture' (attribute)
a: paTam ci:ttaya:N> 'The picture is bad'

Separate nominalization markers are added to the following forms.
e.g. nan-ma 'goodness'
ceRu-ppam 'youth'

Class II

This class of adjectives can again be subgrouped into two sets based on their freedom of occurrences.

Set A
alpam 'some'
svalpam 'some'
e:ta:num 'certain'
ve:Re 'some other'
dha:ra:Lam 'many, much'
kuRe 'many, much'
valare 'many, very'
kuRacc> 'some'

These adjectives cannot be nominalised. These forms can stand independently on 'fused' noun phrase, that means the head-nouns can be deleted if information given by them are contextually recoverable.
e.g. kuRe du:ram naTannu kuRe natannu
'walked a lot of distance' 'walked very much'
vaLare ne:ram karannu vaLare karannu
'cried for a long time' 'cried a lot'

Set B
tale divasam 'previous day'
piRRe divasam 'next day'

3.3.1.2. Hindi

Hindi inherent adjectives are of two kinds; inflexible and uninflexible.

(1) Inflexible adjectives - These adjectives change their final sound according to the gender and number of the noun followed and according to the absence or presence of case markers after the noun. In this category most of the adjectives ending in -a: will come. The changes are as follows:

(1) -a: + oun ((masc. sg) > -a:
e.g. cho:Ta: maka:n 'small house'
bu:ra: a:dmi 'old man'
(2) -a: + noun (masc. sg) + case marker > -e
e.g. choTe maka:n me 'in the small house'
bure a:dmi: ko 'to the old man'
(3) -a : + noun (fem.sg. or pl.) + case marker > 0i:
+ noun (fem.sg.or pl.) + case marker
e.g. choTi: kita:b 'small books'
choTi:kita:b me 'in the small book'
choTi:kita:be 'small books'
choTi: kita:bo me 'in the small books'

(4) Exception is the following -a: ending adjectives which do not change whether followed by masc. or fem. nouns,

barhiya: 'excellent' ghaTiya: 'inferior'
umda: 'very good' ta:za: 'fresh'

II Uninflexible adjectives : These adjectives with ending other than -a: are not inflected either for gender, number or for case makers followed:

e.g. sundar larki: 'beautiful girl'
sundar larki: ko 'to the beautiful girl'
sundar larkiya: 'beautiful girls'
sundar larkyo: ko 'to the beautiful girls'

laghu katha: 'short story'
laghu katha: me 'in the short story'
laghu katha:ye 'short stories'
laghu katha:o me 'in the short stories'

In Hindi adjectives if they occur as complements of transitive verbs and if the direct object takes the case marker 'ko' then the inflexible adjectives also remain uninflexted.
e.g. kya tum is a:dat ko accha: ma:nte ho?
'Do you consider this habit as good? '
meri: ba:t ma:no, mæ: tumhe bara: bana: du:ga:
'Hear my word, I shall make you great'

3.3.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

Malayalam adjectives in general are quality or relation. They function as adjectives by placing them just before a noun or a pronoun. They do not undergo any declensional change. In Hindi adjectives undergo declensional change. In Malayalam some of the inherent adjectives can be nominalised by adding nominal markers and pronominal markers, but in Hindi it isn ot possible.
e.g. M. nallavan 'good person' (N.)
H. accha: a:dmi 'good person' (Adj+N)

In Malayalam adjectives are all non-inflexible when used attributively or predicatively.
e.g.
M. H. Meaning
nalla payyan accha: larka: 'good boy'
payyan nallavan a: n> larka: accha: hæ: 'the boy is good'

3.3.2. Derived adjectives

3.3.2.1. Malayalam

Derived adjectives in Malayalam are forms morphologically derived from other grammatical categories.

Adjectives may be derived from another noun2
a) by the addition of -uLLa
e.g. a:lamuLLa kiNar 'deep well'

2. An adjective can be derived by adding adjectival marker to finite verbs. But they are
treated under R.P.

b) by adding the particle -e to the locative marker
e.g. ka:TTtile taTi 'the wood of forest'

c) by adding the suffix -atte to nouns, .
e.g. annanatte manusyar 'that sort of people'
innalatte cinima 'yesterday's film'

3.3.2.2. Hindi

In Hindi there are no derived adjectives.

3.3.2.3 Similarities and dissimilarities

Derived adjectives are found only in Malayalam. In Hindi such adjectives are absent.
e.g. M. a:lamuLLa jalam
H. g >h> ra: pa:ni:
'deep water'

3.3.3. Interrogative adjectives.

3.3.3.1. Malayalam
Interrogative adjectives in Malayalam are e:t> 'which', etra 'how much'.
e.g. e:tu kuTTiyeya:Nu ninnaL viLccat> ?
'which child did you call? '
etra pustakannaL avarkku ve:Nam ?
'How many books do they want?

3.3.3.2. Hindi

Interrogative adjectives in Hindi are
kitna:/kitni: 'how much'
kitne 'how many'

e.g. a:p ko kitni: pustak ca:hiye?
'How many books do you want? '
utni: pustak a:p kæ :se lege ?
'That much books how you will carry? '
mæ: itna: nahi: kha: sakti:
'I cannot eat this much'

3.3.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi interrogative adjectives exit.
e.g. M. ninnaLkk> etra pustakannaL ve:Nam ?
H. a:p ko kitni: pustak ca:hiye ?
'How many books do you want? '

3.3.4. Demonstrative adjectives

3.3.4.1. Malayalam
The third personal pronouns themselves are used as demonstratives pronouns.
e.g. itu 'this'
itu a:rutTe pustakam a:N>?
'Whose book is this? '
atu 'that
atu ninaLuTe vi:T> alle:?
'It is not your house? '

3.3.4.2. Hindi

In Hindi the third personal pronouns are used as demonstrative pronouns.
e.g. vah k>:n hæ:? 'who is this? '
yah mera: bha:yi: hæ: 'This is my brother'

3.3.4.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
In both Malayalam and Hindi the third person pronouns are used as demonstrative pronouns.
e.g. M. itu a:ruTe pustakam a:N> ?
H. yah kiska: putak hæ: ?
'Whose book is this? '

3.3.5. Indefinite adjectives

3.3.5.1. Malayalam

The indefinite adjectives in Malayalam are pala 'so many' and cila, 'some', ane:kam 'several'.
e.g. (1) pala pustakannaL 'so many books'
(2) cila kuTTikaL 'some children'
(3) ane:kam aLukaL 'so many people'

3.3.5.2. Hindi

In Hindi the following indefinite adjectives are found.
kai:
'many / several'
anek
kuch 'a few'

e.g. (1) vahã: kai: log a:ye
'so many people came there'
(2) yahã: anek pustake milte hæ :
'so many books are available here'
(3) kuch lo:g a:ye
'a few people came'

3.3.5.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The indefinite adjectives are found both in Malayalam and Hindi. In Malayalam indefinite adjectives present are 'pala' and 'cila'. In Hindi kai:/anek and kuch.
e.g. M. pala vi:TukaL
M. kai: ghare
'so many houses'
H. kai: log 'several people'
M. cila pustakannaL
H. kuch pustake
'some books'

3.3.6. Determinative adjectives

3.3.6.1. Malayalam

The determinative adjectives in Malayalam are,
ella: 'all' dha:ra:Lam 'much'
anekam 'many' itra 'this much' atra 'that much'

e.g. (1) ella: pustakannaLum
'all books'
(2) dha:ra:Lam veLLam kuTikkaNam
'you will have to drink more water'
(3) ane:kam janannaL
'so many people'
(4) itra bhaksaNam
'this much food'
(5) atra pustakannaLum va:yicco:?
'That much book did you read?'

3.3.6.2. Hindi

Determinative adjectives in Hindi are,
sab 'all', bahut 'much',
itna:/itni: 'this much'
utna:/utni: 'that much'

e.g. sab log 'all people'
bahut pa:ni: 'much water'
itna: bhi:r 'this much rush'
utna: kha:na: 'that much food'

3.3.6.2. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi determinative adjectives are found.
e.g.
M H
ella: a:L ukaLum sab lo:g 'all people'
dha:ra:Lam veLLam bahut pa:ni: 'much water'
itra tirakk> itna: bhi:r 'this much rush'
atra bhaksaNam utna: kha:na: 'that much food'

3.3.7. Separative adjectives

3.3.7.1. Malayalam
Separative adjective in Malayalam is maRRe 'other'
e.g. maRRe ka:ryam 'other thing'

3.3.7.2. Hindi

In Hindi separative adjectives are
du:sara: 'other one'
>: r ~ any 'other'
e.g. >:r / any log 'other people'
du:sare log 'other people'

3.3.7.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam there is only one separative adjective i.e., maRRe 'other' whereas in Hindi >:r / any or du:sare 'other' are used as separative adjectives.
e.g.

maRRe jo:li (M) du:sara: ka:m 'other job'
>:r / any log 'other people'(H)

3.3.8. Distributie adjective

3.3.8.1. Malayalam

o:ro:ruttan / o:ro:ruttar 'everyone'

e.g. o:ro: ruttarum avaravaruTe jo:li ceyyaNam
'Everyone will have to do their own work'.

3.3.8.2. Hindi

har ek/ pratek 'every one'

e.g. har ek apna: ka:m karta: hæ:
'Every one is doing their own work'
pratyek ko apni: bha:sa acchi: lagti: hæ:
'To each one, their own language seems good'

3.3.8.1. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi distributive adjectives are found.
M. o:ro:ruttarkkum avaravaruTe bha:sa
H. har e:k ko apni: bha:sa:
'to everyone their own language'

3.4. Numerals

3.4.1. Cardinals

3.4.1.1. Malayalam

The Malayalam basic numerals with their adjectival form are given below:

 

Cardinal

Base (Adjectival form)

onn> oru-/or-
raND> iru-
mu:nn> mu/mu:
na:l> na:l-
añc> ai-/an-
a:R> aRu-
e:l> elu-
eTT> eN
onpat> toN


Examples

onn - oru - / or -
e.g. oruvan 'one man' oral:L 'one man'
oru-occurs before consonants and or- before vowels.

raNT> iru -
e.g. iruvar 'two persons'

mu:nn> - mu: ~ mu-
e.g. mu:va:NT> 'three years'

na:l> -na:l -
e.g. na:lkka:li 'four - legged'

añc> -ai-~ an-
e.g. aivar 'five personsss'
anpatu 'fifty'

a:R> - aRu-
e.g. aRumukhan 'six-faced person'
aRupat> 'sixty'

e:l> -elu-
e.g. elupat> 'seventy'

eTT> -eN-
e.g. eNpat> 'eighty'

onpat> -toN-
e.g. toNNu:R>

b) Numbers with two-digits and more.
patt> pati- ~ pan- ~ patt- 'ten'

In Malayalam, 11 to 19 are formed by adding the cardinal single digit numbers to patin- a pan- a pati-. For numbers above 20, the units are added to the tens with the change of the -patu into patti-.
e.g. irupat> 'twenty' > irupattionn> 'tenty one'

For 90 'toNNu:R> ' is used and for adding units it should be changed to toNNu:Rri -
i.e. toNNu:RNionn> 'ninetyone'
toNNu:RriraNT> 'ninitytwo'
11 patinonn> 'eleven'
12 pantRaNT> 'twelve'
13 patimu:nn> 'thirteen'
14 patina:l> 'fourteen'
15 patinanc> 'fifteen'
16 patina:R> 'sixteen'
17 patine:l> 'seventeen'
18 patineTT> 'eighteen'
19 pattonpat> 'nineteen'
20 irupat> 'twenty'
21 irupattonn> 'twenty one'
32 muppattiraNT> 'thirty two'
43 na:lpattimu:nn> 'forty three'
54 anpattina:l> 'fifty four'
65 aRupattann > 'sixty five'
76 elupatta:R> 'seventy six'
87 eNapatte:l> 'eighty seven'
98 toNNu:RreTT> 'ninety eight'
99 toNNu:Rronpat> 'ninety nine'
100 nu:R> 'hundred'

Hundreds in Malayalam are formed by adding nu:R> to the cardinal bases except for 900, where -a:yiram 'thousand' is preceded by tol-.

100 nu:R> 'hundred'
200 irunu:R> 'two hundred'
300 munnu:R> 'three hundred'
400 na:nnu:R> 'four hundred'
500 annu:R> 'five hundred'
600 aRunnu:R> 'six hundred'
700 elunnu:R> 'seven hundred'
800 eNNu:R> 'eight hundred'
900 toLLa:yiram 'nine hundred'

The thousands are formed by adding 'a:yiram' to the cardinal base in Malayalam.
2000 raNTa:yiram 'two thousand'
5000 aiyya:yiram 'five thousand'

When lower digits are added to thousand, 'a:yiram' is changed to a:yiratti - before adding further digits.
2001 raNTa:yirattionn> 'two thousand and one'

In Malayalam laksam 'lakh' changes to laksatti- but ko:Ti 'crore' remains the same to further digits.
e.g.
95,49,05,398 - toNNu:RRañcu ko:Ti, nalppattionaptulaksatti, ayyya:yiratti munnu:RRi toNNu: RReTT>.

3.4.2. Ordinals

Ordinals are formed in Malayalam by adding the suffix -a:m or -a:matte.

e.g. onna:m / onna:matte 'first'
raNTa:m / raNTa:matte 'second'
mu:nna:m / mu:nna:matte 'third'

onna:m has another form 'a:dyatte' which also means 'first'. All others have the same form.

2.4.1.2. Hindi

Hindi cardinal numbers and their bases are,

Cardinal Base and example
1 ek ik - e.g. ikaTTha: 'jointly'
ikl>ta: 'only' (offspring)
2 do du- e.g. duvidha: 'dilemma'
duhara: 'double'
3 ti:n ti-, tin, tir-
e.g. tiguna: 'three times'
tindhara: 'three-edged file'
tirmuha:ni: 'three-road junctions'
4 ca:r c>:- e.g. c>: pa:i: 'cot'
c>:ma:sa: 'four months'
5 pã:c pãc- e.g. pãcmukh 'five faced'
pãcguna: 'five times'
6 che e.g. chama:si: 'six months rite'
7 sa:t sat- e.g. satma:sa: 'seventh month's
celebration'
satlari: 'seven stringed'
8 a:Th aTh- e.g. aThva:ra: 'eight day's time'
9 n>: n>:-
10 das das-


b) Numbers with two digits and more.

In Hindi the two digit numbers, tens have separate expressions, which make the analysis difficult.
10 das
20 bi:s
30 ti:s
40 ca:li:s
50 paca:s
60 sa:Th
70 sattar
80 assi:
90 nabbe

In Hindi the other two digit numbers (ten + units) also have irregular forms.
11 gya:rah
12 ba:rah
13 terah
14 c>:dah
15 pandrah
16 solah
17 satrah
18 aTha:rah
19 unni:s
21 ikki:s
22 ba:i:s
23 tei:s
34 c>:ti:s
35 pæ :ti:s
36 chatti:s
47 sæta:li:s
48 arta:li:s
91 ika:nabe
92 ba:nabe
98 aTTha:nabe
99 ninya:nabe

Hundereds in Hindi are formed by adding s>: to the cardinals form 1 to 9.
100 s>:
200 do s>:
300 ti:n s>:
400 ca:r s>:
500 pa:ñc s>:
600 che s>:
700 sa:t s>:
800 a:Th s>:
900 n>: s>:

The numbers thousands and above are formed by adding haza:r to the cardinal, when lower digits are added to thousands they are simply added to the number.
2000 do haza:R
3000 ti:n haza:R
3002 ti:n haza:Rr do

In Hindi lake 'lakh' and karo:r 'crore' take further digits without any change.
6,47,38,212 can be read as che karo:r, sæ:ta:li:s, arti:s haza:r, do s>: ba:rah.

In Hindi the ordinals upto 4 and that for 6 have different forms from cardinals. The rest of the ordinals are formed by adding the suffix -vã to the cardinals.

e.g. pahla: 'first'
du:sra: 'second'
ti:sra: 'third'
c>:tha: 'fourth'
pãcvã: 'fifth'
chaTha: 'sixth'
sa:tvã: 'seventh'
a:Thvã: 'eight'
navã: 'ninth'
dasvã: 'tenth'

3.4.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

Both Malayalam and Hindi have cardinal, ordinal, multiplicative and distributive numerals. In both langauages besides the ordinary cardinal number some Sanskrit numerals are also in vogue. They show similarity they are:

Examples :

 


Same form
Malayalam
Hindi
English
eka- 'one' e:katvam ekata 'unity'
dvi- 'two' dvidina dvidin 'two days'
tri- 'three' triko:Nam trikoN 'triangle'
catur- 'four' caturbhujam caturbhuj 'with four hands'
pañc- 'five' pañcatatvannaL pancatatv 'five principles'
saTh- 'six' saThbhujan sathbhuj 'hexagon'
sapt- 'seven' saptarusikaL saptarusi 'seven saints'
asT-'eighth' asTadik asTdik 'eighth direction'
nav -'nine' navarasam navaras 'nine tastes'
das- 'ten' dasmukhan dasmukh 'ten faced'
sat- 'hundred' sata:bdi sata:bdi 'hundred years'

 

Cardinal bases

Both Malayalam and Hindi have cardinal bases. But in Malayalam these cardinal bases are more productive than Hindi bases most of the compounds are produced with the Sanskrit bases in Hindi.

The cardinal bases in Malayalam and Hindi from one to ten are:

 

Malayalam
Hindi
Cardinal
Base
Cardinal
Base
1 onn> oru - / or ek ik-
2 raNT> iru - do du-
3 mu:nn> mu-/mu: ti:n ti/-tin/tir
4 na:l> na:l- ca:r c >:- /catur-
5 añc> ai-/an- pã:c pãc-
6 a:R> aRu- che cha-
7 e:l> elu- sa:t sat-
8 eTT> eN- a:Th aTh-
9 onpat> toN- n>: n>:-
10 patt> pati-/pan-/ patti- das das

Numbers with two digits and more

In Malayalam and Hindi the numbers with two digits and more are formed by different systems. In Malayalam 11 to 19 are formed by adding the cardinal single digit numbers to patin-, pan- and pati-. For numbers above 20, the units are added to the tens with the change of -pat- into patti-. But in Hindi tens have separate expressions. In other two digit numbers (tens + units) also the formation of the numbers seem irregular except a few regular forms. Thus Malayalam and Hindi show more contrast in the case of numerals.

 

Malayalam
Hindi
10 patt> das
20 irupat> bi:s
30 muppat> ti:s
40 na:lppat> ca:li:s
50 anpat> paca:s
60 aRupat> sa:th
70 elupat> sattar
80 eNpat> assi:
90 toNNu:R> nabbe
100 nu:R> s>:


Hundreds in Malayalam are formed by adding nu:R> to the cardinal bases except for 900 where a:yiram 'thousand' is preceded by tol-. In Hindi also by adding 's>: ' to the cardinal numbers. In Malayalam 'nu:Ru' is added to the base but in Hindi 's>: ' is added to the number itself.

e.g.
200 irunnu:R>(M) do s>: (H)
800 ennu:R> (M) a:th s>:(H)

But in 900 Malayalam is toLLa:yiram in Hindi n>: s>:

The numbers thousand and above are formed in the same way in the two languages. In Malayalam thousands are formed by adding a:yiram to the cardinal base and in Hindi by adding haza:r.

e.g.
2,000 raNTa:yiram (M) do haza:r(H)
5,000 ayya:yiram(M) pa: ñc haza:r(H)

When lower digits are added to thousand in Malayalam a:yiram > a:yiratti - and then add further digits, whereas in Hindi the lower digits are directly added.

e.g.
4,003 na:la:yirattimu:nn>(M) ca:r haza:r ti:n(H)

Ordinals are found both in Malayalam and Hindi. In Malayalam ordinals are formed by adding the suffix - a:m or - a:matte. In Hindi upto 4 and that for 6 have different forms from the cardinal numbers. For other numbers ordinals are formed by adding the suffix - va: to the cardinals.
e.g.
onna:m /onna:matte(M) pahla: 'first'(H)
e:la:m / e:la:matte(M) sa:tva : 'seventh'(H)

Multiplicative Numerals

In Malayalam multiplicative numerals are formed by adding the word 'maTannu' 'fold' to the cardinal number. In Hindi by adding the suffix -guna: to the bound cardinal bases.
e.g.
na:lu maTann>(M) c>: guna:(H) 'four times'
eTTu maTann>(M) aThguna:(H) 'eight fold'

Distributive Numerals

Distributive numerals are formed by reduplicating the cardinals. In Malayalam for numbers upto five, adjectival forms of the numbers are prefixed and in the rest distributives are got by duplication. In Hindi distributive numerals are formed by reduplicating the cardinal number. Examples:

o:ro:nn> ekek 'one by one'
i:rant> dodo 'two by two'
ayyañc> pa: ñc pa: ñc 'five by five'
a:Ra:R> che che 'six by six'
a:yirama:yiram haza:r haza:r 'thousand by thousand'
3.5. Verb

Verbs are those units which take or are capable of taking tense markers.

3.5.1. Imperatives
Imperatives in Malayalam and Hindi show order, command or request. It is formed from the root of the verb.

3.5.1.1.Affirmative imperatives
Affirmative imperatives are formed by adding suffixes to the verb root.

3.5.1.1.1. Direct imperatives

3.5.1.1.1.1 Malayalam

Direct imperative forms in Malayalam are formed by adding the suffix -O, or -u to the verb stem for singular forms, and the suffix -in or -u for plural forms.

- O occurs with vowel ending stems
e.g., va: + O > va: 'come (you. Sg.)
po: + O> po: 'go' "
iri + O> iri 'sit' "

-u occurs with all other verb stems.
e.g. o:T + u > o:Tu 'run' (you. Sg)
tinn + u > tinnu 'eat'

Imperative plural suffix is - in or u:
e.g. var + in 'come' (you pl.)
var + u: 'come' (you pl.)
no:kk + in 'look' (you pl.)
no:kk + u: 'look' (you pl.)

3.5.1.1.1.2. Hindi

In Hindi direct imperatives are formed by adding suffixes directly to the root of the verb according to the subject. When the subject is tu: 'you' the marker is O.
Root + O. e.g. tu: a: O you come.

When the subject is tum the marker is -o: Root + o:
e.g., tum a: + o: > tum a:o: 'you come'.

When the subject is a:p the marker is -iye
Root + iye
e.g. a:p a: + iye > a:p a:yie 'you (hon) come'

3.5.1.1.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi imperatives are formed by adding suffixes directly to the verb root. In Malayalam imperative singular is formed with f marker for vowel ending verb stems and -u for all toher stems. -u: or -in is the suffix for imperative plural. However, in Hindi there are different markers for the verbs of first person singular, plural and honorific subjects. i.e. When 'tu' is the subject the imperative marker is f, for 'tum', -o: is the suffix with verb and when 'a:p' is the subject the verb will take the suffix -ie for imperative.

e.g.

Malayalam
Hindi and English
ni: iri tu: bærh 'you sit'
ninnaL varin tum a:o: 'you (pl) come
ta:nkaL varin
or
ta:nkaL vanna:lum
(rarely used)
a:p a:yie: 'you (hon) come'


3.5.1.1.2. Indirect imperatives

3.5.1.1.2.1. Malayalam

Indirect imperatives in Malayalam are formed by adding the suffix - ate or -a:m

The suffix -aTTe gives meaning of permission.
e.g. avaL po:kaTTe 'let her go'
avaL elutaTTe 'let her write'

The suffix -a:m also give the meaning of permission.
e.g. avaLkku po:ka:m 'she can go'

3.5.1.1.2.2. Hindi

In Hindi there is no seperate indirect imperative marker. It is expressed by using infinitve + do: syntactic construction and verb root + s> k construction.
e.g. use ja:ne do 'let him go'
a:p ja: sakte hæ: 'you (hon.) can go'

3.5.1.1.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
In Malayalam indirect imperatives are marked by adding the suffixes -aTTe and
-a:m. In Hindi there is no indirect imparative marker.

3.5.1.2. Negative imperative or prohibitive

3.5.1.2.1. Malayalam

Negative markers in Malayalam are 'arut> ' and ' ku:Ta'

'arut> ' is added to all verb stems to get the meaning of prohibition.
e.g. cey + arut> > ceyyarut> 'don't do'
ka:N + arut> > ka:Narut> 'don't see'

'ku:Ta' it occurs in free variations with 'aruta'
e.g. , ceytu ku:Ta 'don't do'
or
ceyyarut> 'don't do'

3.5.1.2.2. Hindi

Negative imperative in Hindi is formed by the use of negative word 'mat', which denotes the meaning of prohibition, before or after the verb.
e.g. mat ja:na: 'don't go'
mat ja:o 'don't go' (you.sg.)
mat ja:ie 'don't go' (you. hon)

3.5.1.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The meaning of prohibition is conveyed in Malayalam by using the word 'arutu' or 'ku:Ta' with the verb stem and in Hindi using the word 'mat' before or after the verb.

e.g. M. aviTe po:karut>
or
aviTe poykku:Ta

H. vahã : mat ja:na:
'don't go there'

3.5.1.3. Tenses

3.5.2.1. Present tense

3.5.2.1.1. Malayalam
In Malayalam present tense is formed by adding the suffix -unnu.
e.g. po:k + unnu 'going'
var + unnu 'coming'
Negative form is obtained by adding 'illa' to the present form of the verb stem.
e.g. var + unn + illa 'not coming'
po:k + unn + illa 'not going'

3.5.2.1.2. Hindi

In Hindi present tense is formed by adding imperfect participle marker.
(-ta:, -te, ti:, or - ti) and present auxiliary verb to the verb root.

e.g. mæ: ga:ti: hu: 'I am singing'
tum likhti: ho: 'you are writing'
a:p dekhte hæ: 'you are looking'
yah calta: hæ: 'it is moving'

Negative form is obtained by adding 'nahi: ' immediately before the verb.
e.g. mæ: nahi : ga:ti : hu: 'I am not singing'

3.5.2.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam the present tense marker is -unnu and is added to the verb stem. In Hindi to get present tense both imperfect participle marker and present auxillary are added to the root. In Malayalam there is no pronominal termination to the verb. But in Hindi verbs have pronominal terminations.
e.g.
Malayalam : na:n po:kunnu 'I (male/female) am going'
Hindi : mæ: ja:ti: hu: 'I (female) am going'

Negative forms are obtained by adding 'illa' to the present form of the verb stem in Malayalam and 'nahi': before the verb in Hindi.
e.g.
Malayalam : na:n pokunnila
Hindi : mæ: ja:ti: nahi : hu:
'I am not going'

3.5.2.2. Past tense

3.5.2.2.1. Malayalam

The past tense markers in Malayalam are /-i, -nnu, -nu, - ññu, -tu, -tu, -ttu, -ccu, -cu, -ntu, -NTu/.
e.g. va + nnu 'came'
po : + yi: 'went'

Distribution of past tense markers in Malayalam is complicated. Different types of verb stems which take each case marker are not listed here. (For the ditribution see Subramoniam, V.I. (1963; P. 85-98) and Panikkar. G.K. (1973: 107-125).]

Negative form is obtained by adding 'illa' with the past form of the verb.
e.g. va + nn + illa 'didn't come'
po : + y-illa 'didn't go'

3.5.2.2.2. Hindi

In Hindi past tense marker is formed by adding the perfect particle markers (-a:, e, i:, i) to the verb stem
e.g. cal + a: 'went'
so + e: 'slept'
likh + i: 'wrote'
a + i: 'came'

Negative form is obtained by adding nahi: before the verb

e.g. nahi: likhi: 'didn't write'

3.5.2.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam different types of verb stems take different past tense markers. In Malayalam there is no pronominal termination but in Hindi it is present. In Hindi for getting past tense form of the verb perfect participle marker is added to the verb root.
e.g.
M: avan vannu
H: vah a:ya: 'He came'
M: pa:ti 'sang'
H: ga:ya:

Negative future form in Malayalam is formed by adding 'illa' after the future form of the verb and in Hindi by adding 'nahi: ' before the verb.
e.g.
M: pa:Tiyilla
H: nahi: ga:ya:
'didn't sang'

3.5.2.3. Future tense

3.5.2.3.1. Malayalam

The future tense marker in Malayalam is -um.
e.g.
var + um 'will come'
tar + um 'will give'
va:nn + um 'will buy'

Negative future form is obtained by adding 'illa'. But unlike in the case of Present Tense and Past Tense it is added not after the tense form of the verb but directly after the stem or after the infinitive (-uka) form of the verb.
e.g. var + illa 'won't come'
or
var + uka + illa 'won't come'

3.5.2.3.2. Hindi

In Hindi, future tense is formed by adding the future tense markers -u:ga:, -oge, -ega: -ega: to the root of the verb. When mæ: is the subject future tense marking forms are -u:gi: or u:ga : depending upon feminine or masculine subject, for 'tum' as subject -oge, -oga: or ogi: and for a:p -oge are the markers.
e.g. mæ :parhu:gi: 'I will study'
tum parhogi: 'you will study'
a:p parhoge 'you (hon.) will study'

Negative future form in Hindi is obtained by adding 'nahi: ' before the verb.
e.g. nahi: parhu:gi: 'won't study'

3.5.2.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam there is only one marker -um for future tense irrespective of subject of theverb. In Hindi future tense markers are -uga:, -ugi: , -oga: -oge, -ogi: according to the subject of the verb.
e.g. M. na:n po:kum
H. mæ :ja:ugi: 'I will go'
M. avan varum
H. vah: a:yega: 'He will come'
M. ninnaL po:kum
H. tum ja:oge 'you will go'

Negative forms are obtained by adding 'illa' after the verb stem in Malayalam and the adding 'nahi: ' before the verb in Hindi.
e.g. M. avan varilla or avan varuka illa
H. vah nahi: a:yega: 'He won't come'

3.5.3. Finite verbs

3.5.3.1. Malayalam
In Malayalam finite verb is simpler. It does not have pronominal terminations. This absence of conjugation is one of the most significant aspects of Malayalam grammar.
e.g. avaL/avan var + unnu 'he comes' (present)
avaL/avan var + um 'he will come' (future)
avaL/avan vannu 'he came' (past)

Negative forms are obtained by adding -illa after the verb.

3.5.3.2. Hindi

In Hindi verbal conjugations are more complicated. Hindi verbs are generally conjugated by adding the required tense marker with PNG markers. Except six verbs namely, kar 'do', le 'take' de 'give', pi: 'drink', ho 'be/become' ja: 'go', all other verbs show similarity in conjugation. These six verbs show irregularity only in imperatives and the tenses formed form the past participle forms.

e.g. vah a:ya: hæ 'he came'
vah a:ti: hæ 'she comes'
vah a:ye:ga: 'he will come'

Negative forms are obtained by adding nahi: before the verb eg. nahi: a:ya:, 'didn't come'.

3.5.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

Malayalam does not have pronominal terminations. Absense of conjugation is a significant feature of Malayalam verbs. It takes only suffixes of tense, whereas in Hindi verbal conjugations are not so simple. Hindi verbs are generally conjugated by adding the required tense marker with PNG markers.

e.g. M: avar/avan/avaL paThikkunnu
'he/she is learning' or 'they are learning'
H. vah parhta: hæ: 'he learns'
vah parhti:hæ: 'she learns'
ve parhte hæ: 'they (masc.) learn'
ve parhti: hæ: 'they (fem.) learn'

Negative form are obtained in Malayalam by adding 'illa' to present and past form of the verb stems for getting present and past negatives, and directly to the stem for getting future negative. In Hindi 'nahi: ' is added before the verb.

e.g. M. var + unn + illa
H. nahi: a:ti: 'not coming'

3.5.4. Non finite verbs

3.5.4.1. Infinitive (Purposive)

3.5.4.1.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam the suffix -a:n added to the verb stem will give purposive infinite form of the verb.
e.g. var + a:n 'for coming'
u:t + a:n 'for blowing'

3.5.4.1.2. Hindi

In Hindi the infinitive form of the verb is obtained by adding -na: (-ne, ni:, ni: occording to the subject) to the verb stem.
e.g. cal + na: 'to work'

The purposive infinite form is obtained by adding the postposition 'ke liye' with the infinitive form of the verb.
e.g. calne keliye 'for walking'

keliye is optional and without that also the verb will give purposive meaning.
e.g. mæ: parhne keliye gaya: ' I went for learning'
mæ: parhne gaya:

3.5.4.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam the marker -a:n is used to denote the purposive infinitive form of theverb. In Hindi inifinitive form is obtained by na: (ne, ni, ni: according to subject) to the verb root. For getting the meaning of purposive infinitive the post position 'keliye' is added to the verb root + na:

e.g. M. paThikka:n po:yi
H. parhne keliye gaya: 'went for learning'

3.5.4.2. Verbal participle1

3.5.4.2.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam the suffix -a is used as verbal participle -a occurs after the verb stem before /ve:Nam/and /ve:NTa/
e.g. po:k + a + ve:Nam > po:kaNam 'shall go'
var + a + ve:Nam > varaNam 'shall come'

3.5.4.2.2. Hindi
In Hindi there is no separate marker for verbal participle. The equivalent form is given by adding present auxiliary verb hæ: to the infinitive form of the verb.
e.g. ja:na: hæ : 'shall go'

3.5.4.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The verbal participle1 is found only in Malayalam. The suffix in Malayalam is -a which occurs after the verb stems before /ve:Nam/ and /ve:NTa/ In Hindi there is no marker for this, its meaning is conveyed by using infinitive form of theverb + present auxiliary verb.

e.g. M: enikku aviTe po:kaNam
H. mujhe vaha: ja:na: hæ :
' I shall go there'

3.5.4.3. Verbal participle2

3.5.4.3.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam the verbal participle2 is formed by adding the markers - f, and -u. f occurs after the past tense marker /i/.
e.g. ma:RR + i + f 'changed'
ca :T + i + f 'jumped'

-u occurs with all other verb stems.
e.g. kaN + T + u 'having seen'
va + nnu 'having come'

Negative form of the verbal participle has the structure verb stem + a:t + e where a:t is the negative marker.
e.g. kan + a:t + e 'without seeing'
var + a:t + e 'without coming'

3.5.4.3.2. Hindi

In Hindi the verbal participle is formed not by adding any suffix but by the addition of the verb stem -kar to the root of the verb.
e.g. de:khkar 'having seen'
ja:kar 'having gone'

Negative forms are obtained by the use of the preposition 'bina' before or after the infinitive form of the verb.
e.g. bina dekhe/ dekhe bina 'without seeing'

3.5.4.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The verbal participle2 is formed in Malayalm by the use of suffixes whereas in Hindi by the use of separate word forms.
e.g. M: vannu paRannu
H: a:kar kaha:
'Came and said'

The negative form in Malayalam is obtained by adding the negative marker '-a:t' after the verb stem but in Hindi by adding a preposition 'bina: '
e.g. M: var + a:t + e
H: bina: a:ye 'without coming'

3.5.4.4. Conditional participle

3.5.4.4.1 Malayalam

The conditional participle is obtained by adding the suffix -a:l to the past tense form of the verb or by adding the connector 'enkil' in the non past tenses.
e.g. vanna:l 'if comes'
varunnu enkil 'if will come'

Negatrive forms are obtained by adding 'illa enkil. ' or -a:te irunna:l or -uka illa enkil.
e.g.
vanna:l 'if comes' (affirm)
vara:te irunna:l 'if doesn't come' (neg.)
varunnu enkil 'if coming' (affirm.)
varunnilla enkil 'if not coming' (neg.)
varum enkil 'if will come' (affirm.)
varukayilla enkil 'if won't come' (neg.)

3.5.4.4.2. Hindi

In Hindi conditional particle is obtained by adding 'to' the verb stem.
e.g. a:te to 'if come'
a:ye to 'if came'
a:ti: hæ: to 'if coming'

Negative conditional is formed by adding nahi: before the verb.
e.g. nahi: a:te to 'if not come'

3.5.4.4.2 Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam the conditional marker is the suffix -a:l and it is used with past form of the verb. Non past forms have separate conditional forms using 'enkil. ' In Hindi there is only one form functions as conditional i.e. 'to' in all tense. The negative forms are also different in Malayalam for different tenses. In Hindi nahi: is added before the verb in all tenses.

3.5.4.5. Concessive participle

3.5.4.5.1. Malayalam

The concessive participle marker in Malayalam is '-a:lum, ' added to the past form of the verb stem.
e.g. vanna:lum 'if at all comes'
irunna:lum 'if at all sits'

The negative form is obtained by adding -illa enkilum to the stem.
e.g. vannilla enkilum 'if at all not comes'
irunna:lum 'if at all sits'

The negative form is obtained by adding -illa enkilum to the stem.
e.g. vanilla enkilum 'if at all not comes'

3.5.4.5.2. Hindi
In Hindi concessive participle is marked with 'to bhi: ' added after the verb.
e.g. a:te: to bhi: 'if at all comes'

3.5.4.6. Relative participle

3.5.4.6.1. Malayalam

The relative participle marker in Malayalam is -a added after the verb stem.
Verb stem _ R.P. marker
e.g. naTann+a 'which happened' (past)
naTakkunn +a 'which is happening (present)'

Future relative participle is formed by adding - to the future form of the verb i.e. no separate overt marker is present. E.g. varum ka: lam 'coming time'

Negative relative participle form is obtained by adding -a:tt- before the relative participle marker and after the verb stem.
e.g. naTa-kk + a:tt + a 'which didn't happen'

3.5.4.6.2. Hindi

In Hindi present relative participles are formed by adding hua:, hue, and hui: after the present tense forms of the verb. The variations in the forms indicate the gender number variations.
e.g. d>:rta: hua: ghora: 'running horse'
d>: rte: hue kutte 'running dogs'

Similar to the present tense, the past tense form of the reltive participle is formed by adding hua:, hue and hui: to the past tense form of the verb.
e.g. a:ya hua: a:dmi: 'man who came'
a:ye hue log 'the people who came'
a:yi: hui: ciTThi: 'letter which came'

Future participle in Hindi is formed by adding va:la:, va:le and va:li: to the oblique infinitive form of the verb where the final vowels indivate the varioations in number and gender.
e.g. sone va:la a:dmi: 'sleeping man'
sone va:li a>:rat 'sleeping woman'
soneva: le log 'sleeping people'

There is no separate negative relative participle form in Hindi.

3.5.4.6.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam Relative participle is formed by adding suffix whereas in Hindi by using separate forms. Negative relative participle in Malayalam also formed by the addition of suffix. In Hindi negative relative participle form is absent.

3.5.5. Aspects

In both Malayalam and Hindi form of Aspects is verbal participle + auxiliary verb.

3.5.5.1. Habitual

3.5.5.1.1. Malayalam

The form of habitual verb in Malayalam is verbal participle + the finite form of verb stem var-
e.g. va:yiccu + vannu (past)
va:yiccu + varunnu (present)
vayiccu + varum (future)

3.5.5.1.2. Hindi

The habitual form in Hindi is expressed by adding different forms of the verb ja:- to the verbal participle.
e.g. likh ja:na (past)
likh ja:yega: (future)
likh ja:ti: (present)

3.5.5.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi habitual verbs indicating present, past and future forms are available.
e.g.

Malayalam
Hindi
eluti vannu likh ja:na: (past)
eluti varunnu likh ja:ti: (present)
eluti varum likh ja:yega: (future)

 

3.5.5.2. Trial

3.5.5.2.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam form for trial is

Verbal participle + no : kku
e.g. kaliccu no:kku 'try to eat'
paThiccu no:kku 'try to learn'

3.5.5.2.2. Hindi

In Hindi the meaning of trial is obtained by the sequence 'kar dekho' to theverb stem.
e.g. calckar dekho 'try to walk'
sunkar dekho 'try to hear'

3.5.5.2.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam form for trial is obtained by adding 'no:kku' to the verbal participle whereas in Hindi by the addition of the sequence 'kar dekho.'
e.g. M: naTannu no: kku
H: calkar dekho
'try to walk'

3.5.5.3. Completive
3.5.5.3.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam the sense of completion of verb is obtained by adding 'kaliññu' to the verbal participle.
e.g. paThiccu kaliññu 'completed study'
paRannu kaliññu 'completed saying'

3.5.5.3.2. Hindi

In Hindi 'cuk' is added to the verb root for showing completion of action.
e.g. parh cuka: 'completed studying'
ga: cuki: 'completed singing'

3.5.5.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam 'kaliññu' shows the completion of action similarly in Hindi 'cuk'
e.g. M. paThiccu kalinnu
H. parh cuka: 'completed studying'

3.5.5.4. Reflexive

3.5.5.4.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam addition of 'koLLum' to the verbal participle will give reflexive meaning.
e.g. avan va:yiccu koLLum 'he will read himself'
avaL ceytu koLLum 'she will do herself'

3.5.5.4.2. Hindi

For showing reflexive action there is no separate marker is added to the verb stem in Hindi.

3.5.5.4.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
The reflexive meaning in Malayalam is obtained by adding 'koLLum' to the v.p. whereas in ; Hindi there is no equivalent form.

3.5.5.5. Durative
3.5.5.5.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam the continuity of action is shown by adding koNTirikkunnu, koNTirikkum, and koNTirunnu for present, future and past tenses.

e.g. avaL paThiccukoNTirikkunnu
'She is studying'
avLl paThiccukoNTirikkum
'She will keep on studying'
avaL paThiccukoNTirunnu
'She was studying'

3.5.5.5.2. Hindi

In Hindi continuity of action is expressed by using raha:, rahe and rahi: along with auxiliary verbs hæ: tha: the: thi: or ho:ga, hoge, hogi: where the variations in the final vowel indicate the variation in number and gender of the subject.

e.g. Present tense
(1) vah parh rahi: hæ:
'she is studying'

past tense
(2) vah parh rahi : thi:
'she was studying'

future tense
(3) vah parh rahe hogi: 'she will be studying'

3.5.5.5.3 Similarities and dissimilarities

Durative forms are found both in Malayalam and Hindi. In both languages they are formed by the addition of separate sequences.

3.5.5.6. Perfective
3.5.5.6.1. Malayalam

The present, past and future perfective forms in Malayalam are,

e.g. present tense form
paThiccirikkunnu

past tense form
e.g. paThiccirunnu or paThiccittuNT>

future form
paThiccirikkum

3.5.5.6.2. Hindi

In Hindi perfective sense is expressed by adding present, past and future forms of the auxiliary verb to the perfect participle of the verb.

Present tense
e.g. parha : hæ:

past tense
parha: tha:/the/thi: (where the final vowels indicate
the number gender :ho:ga:

Present tense
e.g. parha: hæ:

Past tense
parha: the:/the/this: (Where the final vowels indicate the number gender
variation)

Future tense
parha:ho:ga:

3.5.5.6.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
Present, past, future perfective forms are available both in Malayalam and Hindi.

3.5.6. Mood
Form verbal participle1 + auxiliary.

3.5.6.1. Possibility

3.5.6.1.1. Malayalam

The possibility mood in Malayalam is expressed by adding the suffix -a:m to the verb stem.
e.g. var + a: m 'may come'
po:k + a:m 'may go'

The negative form is obtained by additing irikka:m to the negative verbal participle.
e.g. vara:te irikka:m 'may not come'
po:ka:te irikkam:m 'may not go'

3.5.6.1.2. Hindi

The possibility mood in Hindi is expressed by 'sak' the auxiliary verb, to the root of a verb.
e.g. ja: sakte ho 'may go'
a: sakti: hæ: 'may come'

Negative form is formed by adding nahi: before 'sak',
ja: nahi sakti: 'may not go'

3.5.6.1.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

The possibility in Malayalam is formed by the addition of the suffix -a:m whereas in Hindi by the addition of the auziliary verb 'sak'. Negative form of this mood in Malayalam is formed by the addition of negative suffux -a:t whereas in Hindi by adding 'nahi: ' before 'sak'.

3.5.6.2. Obligatory

3.5.6.2.1 Malayalam

Obligatory forms in Malayalam are obtained by adding the verb 've:Nam' to the verbal participle.
e.g. po:k + a + ve:Nam 'must go'
tar + a + ve:Nam 'must give'

Negative forms of obligatory mood is obtained by adding the negative verb 've:NTa' to the verbal participle.
e.g. po:k + a + ve:NTa 'don't go'
tar + a ve:NTa 'don't give'

3.5.6.2.2. Hindi

In Hindi obligatory forms are formed by adding 'ca:hiye' to the infinitive form of the verb. When 'ca:hiye' is added in a sentence the subject will take 'ko' marker and the verb will be in accordance with the gender of the object.
e.g. karna: ca: hiye 'must do'
a:p ko ka:m karna : ca:hiye 'you will have to do work'

Negative obligatory form is obtained by adding 'nahi' before the verb.
e.g. a:p ko ka:m nahi: karna:ca:hiye
'you don't/t want to do work.

3.5.6.2.3. Similarties and dissimilarities

In Malayalam obligatory forms are obtained by adding the verb 've:Nam' to the verbal participle. In Hindia 'ca:hiye' is added to the infinitive form of the verb for getting obligatory form. The negative forms are obtained my adding 've:NTa' to verbal participle in Malayalam and 'nahi: ' before the verb in Hindi.

e.g. M: enikku po:kaNam
H: mujhe ja:na: ca:hiye
'I watned to go'

3.5.6.3. Inceptive

3.5.6.3.1. Malayalam

The inceptive form in Malayalam is infinitive + the finite form of the erb stem po:k-
e.g. vi:la:n po:yi
'going tofall'

3.5.6.3.2. Hindi

In Hindi inceptive meaning is conveyed by using the past tense form of the verb
'ja: ' after the infinitive form of the verb.
e.g. girne gaya: 'going to fall '

3.5.6.3.3. Similarities and dissimilarities
In both Malayalam and Hindi inceptive form is obtained by a sequence of verb.
e.g.
M: vi:la:n po:yi
H: girne gaya: 'going to fall'

3.5.6.4. Ability

3.5.6.4.1. Malayalam

The form in Malayalam is infinitive + the finite form of the verb stem kali-
e.g. paRaya:n kaliyum 'can tell'
paRaya:n kaliyunna 'which can tell'
paRaya:n kalinna 'which told'
pathikka:n kaliyum 'can learn'

Negative form is formed by adding 'kaliyilla' to the infinitive.
e.g. paRaya:n kaliyilla 'can't tell'

3.5.6.4.2. Hindi

In Hindi the form is erb root + sak. 'sak' in Hindi conveys the meaning of ability as well as possibility.
(ibid. 3.5.6.1.2.)
e.g. kah sakta: hæ: 'can tell'

Negative form is formed by adding 'nahi: before 'sak'.
e.g. kah nahi: sakta: 'cannot tell'

3.5.6.4.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam infinitive along with the finite form of the verb stem kaliy - gives the meaning of ability whereas in Hindi 'sak' added to verb stem will convey the meaning.
e.g. M. paRaya:n kaliyum
H. k>h sakta: hæ
'can tell'

3.5.7. Passive voice

3.5.7.1. Malayalam

Passive verbs are not so common in Malayalam because passive constructions are rare in this language.
For getting passive verb the passivizing verb 'peTTu' is used with the infinitive of the chief verb.
e.g. pa:ti > pa:T-a-ppeTTu
'sang' 'was sang by'
paRayunnu > paRaya-ppeTunnu
'telling' 'is told by'

3.5.7.2. Hindi

In Hindi passive verbs are formed by adding the passivizing verb 'ja: ' with the participle of a verb-root., and it is conjugated for tenses and observes concord. In Hindi also passive voice is not much used.
e.g. kahta: > kah ja:ta:
'telling' 'is told by'
ma:ra: > ma:ra: gaya:
'killed' 'was killed by'

3.5.7.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi passive construction in rare. The passive verbs are formed by adding pasivizing verb to the chief verb.
e.g. M. kola-ppeTT-u
H ma:ra: gaya: 'killed'

3.5.8. Transitives

3.5.8.1. Malayalam

In Malayalam transitive verbs are formed after the following morphophonemic changes of theverb stems.

(1) In verb stems ending in stop thefinal stop will lengthen to form transitive.
e.g. ma:R-I > ma:RRi 'removed'

2) Verb stems ending in long nasals denasalizes to form the transitive.
e.g. piNann - i > piNakki 'made to quarrel'
anann - i > anakki 'made to move'

3) All other verb stems will take -tt- before any verbal suffix to form transitive.
e.g., naTa - tt - I 'made to walk'
kiTa - tt - I 'made to lie'

3.5.8.2. Hindi

In Hindi transitive verbs are formed by adding -a:na to the verb root.
e.g. cal + a:na 'made to walk'
parh + a:na 'to teach'

3.5.8.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam transitive verbs are formed after morphophonemic changes of theverb stem. Whether in Hindi the suffix -a: na is added directly to the verb stem.
e.g. Malayalam : naTa -tt - i
Hindi : cal - a:na:
'made to walk'

3.5.9. Causatives

3.5.9.1. Malayalam

Causatives in Malayalam are formed by adding causative suffixes after the verb stems or after the transitive form of the verb.

1) Verb stems ending in vowels or liquids will take -ppi- as causative suffix.
e.g. ce:r + ppi + kk +uka 'cause to unite'

2) Verb stems ending in plosive and continuant will take the causative suffix - i:-
e.g. iT - + i: + kk + um 'cause to put'
ul - + i: + kk + um 'cause to plough'

3) All other verb stems will take -I- as the causative suffix, it occurs in free variation with -ippi-
e.g. ma:RR + i + kk + uka
ma:RR + ippi + kk + uka 'cause to change'
tinn + i + kk + uka
tinn + ippi + kka + uka 'cause to eat'

3.5.9.2. Hindi

In Hindi causatives are formed by causing a shape change to the verb stem and then adding -v before the transitive suffix -a:na:
e.g.
khelna: > khilva:na: 'cause to play'
dekhna: > dikhva:na: 'cause to look'

3.5.9.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malayalam the causative suffix -ippi- is present whereas in Hindu such suffix is absent. In Hindi the sahpe of verb itself will change to form causative.
e.g.
Malayalam : kaLippikkuka
Hindi : khilva:na: 'cause to play'

3.5.10. Defective verbs

3.5.10.1. Malayalam

The defective verbs in Malayalam with their corresponding negatives.

e.g.
1) ve:Nam 'want' ve:NTta 'don't want'
e.g. enikk> i: pustakam ve:Nam
'I want this book'
enikk> i: pustakam ve:NTa
'I don't want this book'

2) a:kum 'can' a:killa 'can't'
e.g. avaLkku itu ceyya:n a:kum
'she can do this'
avaLkku itu ceyya:n a:killa
she can't do this'

3) mati 'enough' poora 'not engough'
e.g. avaLkku oru sa:ri mati
'one s:ree is enough for her'
avaLkku oru sa:ri po:ra
'one sa:ree is not enough for jer'

4) a:N> 'is' alla 'is not'
e.g. avaL miTukki a:N> 'she is brilliant'
avaL miTukki alla 'she is not brilliant'

5) uNT> 'is' illa 'is not'
e.g. vi:Ttil paTTi uNT>
'There is dog in the house'
vi:TTil paTTi illa
'There is no dog in the house'

3.5.10.2. Hindi
Defective verbs in Hindi with their corresponding negatives are given below:

e.g.
1) ca: hiye 'want' nahi: ca:hiye 'don't want'
e.g. mujhe pustak ca:hiye
'Iwant a book'

2) sakta: 'can' nahi: sattka: 'cannot'
e.g. vah ga: saktti:
She can sing'
vah ga: nahi ' sakti:
'she can not sing'

3) ka:fi: enough' ka:fi: nahi : 'not enought'
mujhe itni: ka:fi: hæ:
' This much is enough for me'
mujhe itni: ka:fi: nahi hæ :
'This much is not enough for me'

4) hæ : 'is' nahi: hæ: 'is not'
e.g. yah pustak hæ :
'This is book'
yah pustak nahi: hæ :
' This is not a book'

3.5.10.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

Defective verbs are found in both languages. In Hindi negative form of defective verbs are formed by adding 'nahi: ' whereas Malayalam has separate negative forms.

The defective verbs in Malayalam a:N> 'is' and uNY> 'is' have only a single form as the equivalent form hæ: 'is' in Hindi.
e.g.,
Malayalam ve:Nam 'want' ve:NTa 'don't want'
Hindi ca:hiye 'want' nahi: ca:hiye 'don't want'

e.g. Malayalam : enikku pustakam ve:Nam
Hindi : mujhe pustak ca:hiye 'I want book'

3.5.11. Intensifiers

3.5.11.1. Malayalam
Intensifier in Malayalam is 'vaLare'
e.g. vaLare ku:Tutal sa:dhanannaL
'so much things'

3.5.11.2. Hindi

In Hindi'bahut' will give the meaning of intensification.
e.g.; bahut bare per 'very big tree'

3.5.11.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In Malaylam 'vaLare' and 'bahut' in Hindi are used as intensifiers.
e.g. Malayalam : vaLare valiya maram
Hindi : bahut bare per
Very big tree'

3.5.12. Adverbs

3.5.12.1 Malayalam

Adverbs are those words, which modify verbs. They are used before the verbs in different positions and they do not change their form in accordance with environment or to agree with any word. They are called pure adverbs. There are many words which function as adverbs only by virtue of their environment. They are derived adverbs.

The pure adverbs in Malayalam are

1) Temporal adverbs:
eg., innale 'yesterday' enn> 'which day'
inn> 'today' or eppo:L 'when'
na:Le 'tomorrow' showing the time. They are adverbs of time.

2) Spacial adverbs:
These are adverbs of place.
e.g. aviTe 'there'
iviTe 'here'
eviTe 'where'

3) Adverbs of manner
e.g. ve:gam 'fast'
uRakke 'loudly'
patukke 'slowly'
ennane 'how'
innane 'in this manner'
annane 'in that manner'

Derived adverbs:

Those adverbs which are derived from noun by adding adverbial markers are derived adverbs. The suffix -a:yi (verbal participle of theverb a: 'become') is used with abstract nouns tomake modifiers.
e.g. bhangi - a:yi naTannu 'ended nicely'
saktiya:yi iTiccu 'hited strongly'

To show direction the suffix '-e:kku' is added with the noun.
e.g. veLiyile:kkupo:yi 'went outside'
mukaLile:kku no:kki 'looked up'

3.5.12.2. Hindi

Hindi adverbs occur before the verb in different positions, without changing their form in accordance with environment. Pure adverbs in Hindi are words, which functions as adverbs only.

Pure adverbs

1) Temporal Adverbs :
These are adverbs of time
e.g. kal 'yesterday or tomorrow
parso: 'day:after tomorrow'
a:j 'today'

2) Spacial adverbs : shows the place of occurrence of the action.
e.g. vahã : 'there'
yahã: 'here'
kahã: 'where'

3) Adverb of manner
e.g., tez 'fast'
jaldi 'suddenly, quickly'

Derived adverbs :

In Hindi abstract nouns of qualityor manner followed by the case ending -se function as modifiers.
e.g. zor se 'loudly'
khu:bi: se 'finely'

There are words in Hindi which function as adverbs only by thevirtue of their environments.
e.g. ba:har ja:o 'go out'
u:par uTho 'rise above'
ni:ce dekho 'look down'

3.5.12.3. Similarities and dissimilarities

In both Malayalam and Hindi adverbs are indeclinable. In both the languages they are used before the verbs in different positions and they do not change their form in accordance with the environment. In both Malayalam and Hindi there are pure adverbs and derived adverbs.

The pure adverbs in both the languges are:

1) Temporal Adverbs:
eg.,
innale (M) kal(H) 'yesterday'
inn> (M)a:j (H) 'today'

2) Spacial adverbs:
e.g.
aviTe (M) vahã: (H)'there'
iviTe (M) yahã:(H) 'here'

3) Adverb of manner
e.g.
ve:gam (M) tez (H) 'fast'
peTTennu (M) jaldi: (H) 'quickly'

Derived adverbs:

In Malayalam the suffixes -a:yi and -e:kku are added to the abstract nouns tomake the noun an adverb.
In Hindi the abstract nouns of quality or manner followed by the case ending -se functions as modifier.

eg.
saktiya:yi (M) zor se (H) 'strongly'
nanna:yi (M)khu:bi se (H) 'finely'

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